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This Day in History: October 14


1656 – Massachusetts enacts the first punitive legislation against the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). The marriage of church-and-state in Puritanism makes them regard the Quakers as spiritually apostate and politically subversive.

1773 – Just before the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, several of the British East India Company's tea ships are set ablaze at the old seaport of Annapolis, Maryland.

1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Bristoe Station: Confederate troops under the command of General Robert E. Lee fail to drive the Union Army completely out of Virginia.

1880 – Mexican soldiers kill Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists.

1884 – The American inventor, George Eastman, receives a U.S. Government patent on his new paper-strip photographic film.

1908 – The Chicago Cubs defeat the Detroit Tigers, 2–0, clinching the World Series. It would be their last one to date.

1910 – The English aviator Claude Grahame-White lands his Farman Aircraft biplane on Executive Avenue near the White House in Washington, D.C..

1912 – While campaigning in Milwaukee, the former President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt, is shot and mildly wounded by John Schrank, a mentally-disturbed saloon keeper. With the fresh wound in his chest, and the bullet still within it, Mr. Roosevelt still carries out his scheduled public speech.

1926 – The children's book Winnie-the-Pooh, by A. A. Milne, is first published.

1943 – World War II: The American Eighth Air Force loses 60 of 291 B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers in aerial combat during the second mass-daylight air raid on the Schweinfurt ball bearing factories in western Nazi Germany.

1944 – Linked to a plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel is forced to commit suicide.

1947 – Captain Chuck Yeager of the United States Air Force flies a Bell X-1 rocket-powered experimental aircraft, the Glamorous Glennis, faster than the speed of sound at Mach 1.06 (700 miles per hour (1,100 km/h; 610 kn) over the high desert of Southern California and becomes the first pilot and the first airplane to do so in level flight.

1949 – Eleven leaders of the American Communist Party are convicted, after a nine-month trial in a Federal District Court, of conspiring to advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. Federal Government.

1952 – Korean War: United Nations and South Korean forces launch Operation Showdown against Chinese strongholds at the Iron Triangle. The resulting Battle of Triangle Hill is the biggest and bloodiest battle of 1952.

1958 – The American Atomic Energy Commission, with supporting military units, carries out an undergroundnuclear weapon test at the Nevada Test Site, just north of Las Vegas.

1958 – The District of Columbia's Bar Association votes to accept African-Americans as member attorneys.

1962 – The Cuban Missile Crisis begins: A U.S. Air Force U-2 reconnaissance plane and its pilot fly over the island of Cuba and take photographs of Soviet missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads being installed and erected in Cuba.

1964 – Martin Luther King, Jr. received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence.

1967 – Vietnam War: The folk singer Joan Baez is arrested concerning a physical blockade of the U.S. Army's induction center in Oakland, California.

1968 – Vietnam War: Twenty-seven soldiers are arrested at the Presidio of San Francisco in California for their peaceful protest of stockade conditions and the Vietnam War.

1968 – Vietnam War: The United States Department of Defense announces that the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps will send about 24,000 soldiers and Marines back to Vietnam for involuntary second tours of duty in the combat zone there.

1968 – Apollo program: The first live TV broadcast by American astronauts in orbit performed by the Apollo 7 crew.

1968 – Jim Hines of the United States of America becomes the first man ever to break the so-called "ten-second barrier" in the 100-meter sprint in the Summer Olympic Games held in Mexico City with a time of 9.95 seconds.

1979 – The first Gay Rights March on Washington, D.C., the National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights, demands "an end to all social, economic, judicial, and legal oppression of lesbian and gay people", and draws 200,000 people.

1981 – Citing official misconduct in the investigation and trial, Amnesty International charges the U.S. Federal Government with holding Richard Marshall of the American Indian Movement as a political prisoner.

1982 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan proclaims a War on Drugs.

1984 – "Baby Fae" receives a heart transplant from a baboon.

1998 – Eric Rudolph is charged with six bombings including the 1996 Centennial Olympic Park bombing in Atlanta, Georgia.

2003 – Chicago Cubs fan Steve Bartman becomes infamously known as the scapegoat for the Cubs losing Game 6 of the 2003 National League Championship Series to the Florida Marlins.


1644 – William Penn, English businessman, founded the Province of Pennsylvania (d. 1718)

1712 – George Grenville, English lawyer and politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1770)

1873 – Ray Ewry, American jumper (d. 1937)

1888 – Minnie Evans, Potawatomi leader (d. 1971)

1890 – Dwight D. Eisenhower, American general and politician, 34th President of the United States (d. 1969)

1893 – Lillian Gish, American actress, singer, director, and screenwriter (d. 1993)

1894 – E. E. Cummings, American poet and playwright (d. 1962)

1910 – John Wooden, American basketball player and coach (d. 2010)

1924 – Bill Justis, American saxophonist, composer, and producer (d. 1982)

1928 – Frank E. Resnik, American chemist and businessman (d. 1995)

1939 – Ralph Lauren, American fashion designer, founded the Ralph Lauren Corporation

1978 – Usher, American singer-songwriter, dancer, and actor

1984 – Baby Fae, American medical patient (d. 1984)


1911 – John Marshall Harlan, American lawyer and politician (b. 1833)

1944 – Erwin Rommel, German field marshal (b. 1891)

1959 – Errol Flynn, Australian-American actor, singer, and producer (b. 1909)

1977 – Bing Crosby, American singer-songwriter and actor (b. 1903)

1990 – Leonard Bernstein, American pianist, composer, and conductor (b. 1918)

1997 – Harold Robbins, American author (b. 1915)

1998 – Frankie Yankovic, American accordion player (b. 1916)