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This Day in U.S. History: March 14


1780 – American Revolutionary War: Spanish forces capture Fort Charlotte in Mobile, Alabama, the last British frontier post capable of threatening New Orleans in Spanish Louisiana.

1794 – Eli Whitney is granted a patent for the cotton gin.

1900 – The Gold Standard Act is ratified, placing United States currency on the gold standard.

1903 – The Hay–Herrán Treaty, granting the United States the right to build the Panama Canal, is ratified by the United States Senate. The Colombian Senate would later reject the treaty.

1903 – The Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge is established by US President Theodore Roosevelt.

1910 – Lakeview Gusher, the largest U.S. oil well gusher near Bakersfield, California, vents to atmosphere.

1936 – The first all-sound film version of Show Boat opens at Radio City Music Hall. (There had been a part-talkie, part-silent version of Show Boat in 1929.)

1942 – Orvan Hess and John Bumstead became the first in the United States successfully to treat a patient, Anne Miller, using penicillin.

1943 – World War II: The Kraków Ghetto is "liquidated".

1951 – Korean War: For the second time, United Nations troops recapture Seoul.

1964 – A jury in Dallas finds Jack Ruby guilty of killing Lee Harvey Oswald, the assumed assassin of John F. Kennedy.

1967 – The body of U.S. President John F. Kennedy is moved to a permanent burial place at Arlington National Cemetery.

1995 – Space exploration: Astronaut Norman Thagard becomes the first American astronaut to ride to space on board a Russian launch vehicle.


1863 – Casey Jones, American engineer (d. 1900)

1879 – Albert Einstein, German-American physicist, engineer, and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1955)

1912 – Les Brown, American saxophonist, composer, and bandleader (d. 2001)

1933 – Quincy Jones, American singer-songwriter, trumpet player, and producer

1934 – Eugene Cernan, American captain, pilot, and astronaut

1960 – Kirby Puckett, American baseball player (d. 2006)

1988 – Stephen Curry, American basketball player

1997 – Simone Biles, American gymnast


1932 – George Eastman, American inventor and businessman, founded Eastman Kodak (b. 1854)

1991 – Doc Pomus, American singer-songwriter (b. 1925)

2010 – Peter Graves, American actor and director (b. 1926)

2018 - Stephen Hawking, English theoretical physicist and cosmologist (b. 1942)