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This Day in History: June 10


1692 – Salem witch trials: Bridget Bishop is hanged at Gallows Hill near Salem, Massachusetts, for "certaine Detestable Arts called Witchcraft & Sorceries".

1805 – First Barbary War: Yusuf Karamanli signs a treaty ending the hostilities between Tripolitania and the United States.

1854 – The first class of United States Naval Academy students graduate.

1861 – American Civil War: Battle of Big Bethel: Confederate troops under John B. Magruder defeat a much larger Union force led by General Ebenezer W. Pierce in Virginia.

1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Brice's Crossroads: Confederate troops under Nathan Bedford Forrest defeat a much larger Union force led by General Samuel D. Sturgis in Mississippi.

1898 – Spanish–American War: U.S. Marines land on the island of Cuba.

1935 – Dr. Robert Smith takes his last drink, and Alcoholics Anonymous is founded in Akron, Ohio, United States, by him and Bill Wilson.

1940 – World War II: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt denounces Italy's actions with his "Stab in the Back" speech at the graduation ceremonies of the University of Virginia.

1944 – In baseball, 15-year-old Joe Nuxhall of the Cincinnati Reds becomes the youngest player ever in a major-league game.

1963 – Equal Pay Act of 1963 aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex (see Gender pay gap). It was signed into law on June 10, 1963 by John F. Kennedy as part of his New Frontier Program

1964 – United States Senate breaks a 75-day filibuster against the Civil Rights Act of 1964, leading to the bill's passage.

1967 – The Gateway Arch opens to the public.

1977 – James Earl Ray escapes from Brushy Mountain State Prison in Petros, Tennessee, but is recaptured on June 13.

1977 – The Apple II, one of the first personal computers, goes on sale.

1991 – Eleven-year-old Jaycee Lee Dugard is kidnapped in South Lake Tahoe, California; she would remain a captive until 2009.

2003 – The Spirit rover is launched, beginning NASA's Mars Exploration Rover mission.

2003 – Wicked opens on Broadway, proceeding to win 40 awards just for the Broadway production.


1737 – Ruth Blay, American murderer (d. 1768)

1793 – Chauncey Jerome, American clockmaker (d. 1868)

1753 – William Eustis, American physician and politician, 12th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1825)

1865 – Frederick Cook, American physician and explorer (d. 1940)

1895 – Hattie McDaniel, American actress, singer-songwriter, and comedian (d. 1952)

1915 – Saul Bellow, Canadian-American author and playwright, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2005)

1922 – Judy Garland, American singer, actress, and vaudevillian (d. 1969)

1929 – James McDivitt, American general, pilot, and astronaut

1929 – E. O. Wilson, American biologist, author, and academic

1971 – Bobby Jindal, American journalist and politician, 55th Governor of Louisiana

1982 – Tara Lipinski, American figure skater

1992 – Kate Upton, American model and actress


1692 – Bridget Bishop, Colonial Massachusetts woman hanged as a witch during the Salem witch trials (b. 1632)

1909 – Edward Everett Hale, American minister, historian, and author (b. 1822)

1940 – Marcus Garvey, Jamaican journalist and activist, founded the Black Star Line (b. 1887)

1946 – Jack Johnson, American boxer (b. 1878)

1958 – Angelina Weld Grimké, American journalist, poet, and playwright (b. 1880)

1967 – Spencer Tracy, American actor (b. 1900)

1976 – Adolph Zukor, Hungarian-American film producer, co-founded Paramount Pictures (b. 1873)

1988 – Louis L'Amour, American novelist and short story writer (b. 1908)

2002 – John Gotti, American mobster (b. 1940)

2003 – Donald Regan, American colonel and politician, 11th White House Chief of Staff (b. 1918)

2004 – Ray Charles, American singer-songwriter, pianist, and actor (b. 1930)

2012 – Warner Fusselle, American sportscaster (b. 1944)

2015 – Robert Chartoff, American film producer and philanthropist (b. 1933)