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This Day in History: July 1


1855 – Signing of the Quinault Treaty: The Quinault and the Quileute cede their land to the United States.

1862 – American Civil War: The Battle of Malvern Hill takes place. It is the final battle in the Seven Days Campaign, part of George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign.

1863 – American Civil War: The Battle of Gettysburg begins.

1881 – The world's first international telephone call is made between St. Stephen, New Brunswick, Canada, and Calais, Maine, United States.

1885 – The United States terminates reciprocity and fishery agreement with Canada.

1898 – Spanish–American War: The Battle of San Juan Hill is fought in Santiago de Cuba.

1908 – SOS is adopted as the international distress signal.

1916 – The first attack of the Jersey Shore Shark Attacks of 1916 occurs.

1922 – The Great Railroad Strike of 1922 begins in the United States.

1931 – United Airlines begins service (as Boeing Air Transport).

1933 – Wiley Post becomes the first person to fly solo around the world traveling 15,596 miles (25,099 km) in seven days, 18 hours and 45 minutes.

1942 – World War II: First Battle of El Alamein.

1963 – ZIP codes are introduced for United States mail.

1966 – The first color television transmission in Canada takes place from Toronto.

1968 – The United States Central Intelligence Agency's Phoenix Program is officially established.

1968 – The Nuclear non-proliferation treaty is signed in Washington, D.C., London and Moscow by sixty-two countries.

1968 – Formal separation of the United Auto Workers from the AFL–CIO in the United States.

1979 – Sony introduces the Walkman.

1981 – The Wonderland murders occur in the early morning hours in Los Angeles, allegedly masterminded by businessman and drug dealer Eddie Nash.

1984 – The PG-13 rating is introduced by the MPAA.

1987 – The American radio station WFAN in New York City is launched as the world's first all-sports radio station.

1990 – German reunification: East Germany accepts the Deutsche Mark as its currency, thus uniting the economies of East and West Germany.

1991 – The Warsaw Pact is officially dissolved at a meeting in Prague.

2004 – Saturn orbit insertion of Cassini–Huygens begins at 01:12 UTC and ends at 02:48 UTC.

2013 – Neptune's moon S/2004 N 1 is discovered.


1807 – Thomas Green Clemson, American politician and educator, founded Clemson University (d. 1888)

1906 – Estée Lauder, American businesswoman, co-founded the Estée Lauder Companies (d. 2004)

1931 – Leslie Caron, French-American actress and dancer

1934 – Jamie Farr, American actor and screenwriter

1942 – Andraé Crouch, American singer-songwriter, producer, and pastor (d. 2015)

1943 – Philip Brunelle, American conductor and organist

1945 – Debbie Harry, American singer-songwriter and actress (Blondie and The Wind in the Willows)

1950 – David Duke, American activist, author, and politician

1952 – Dan Aykroyd, Canadian-American actor, producer, and screenwriter

1961 – Carl Lewis, American long jumper and runner


1860 – Charles Goodyear, American chemist and engineer (b. 1800)

1884 – Allan Pinkerton, Scottish-American detective and spy (b. 1819)

1896 – Harriet Beecher Stowe, American author and activist (b. 1811)

1950 – Eliel Saarinen, Finnish-American architect, co-designed the National Museum of Finland (b. 1873)

1983 – Buckminster Fuller, American architect, designed the Montreal Biosphère (b. 1895)

1991 – Michael Landon, American actor, director, and producer (b. 1936)

1995 – Wolfman Jack, American radio host (b. 1938)

1999 – Forrest Mars, Sr., American businessman, created M&M's and the Mars bar (b. 1904)

2000 – Walter Matthau, American actor and singer (b. 1920)

2003 – Herbie Mann, American flute player and saxophonist (b. 1930)

2004 – Marlon Brando, American actor and director (b. 1924)

2005 – Luther Vandross, American singer-songwriter and producer (Change) (b. 1951)

2009 – Karl Malden, American actor and singer (b. 1912)

2012 – Alan G. Poindexter, American captain, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1961)

2012 – Jack Richardson, American author and playwright (b. 1934)