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This Day in History: December 1


1824 – United States presidential election, 1824: Since no candidate received a majority of the total electoral college votes in the election, the United States House of Representatives is given the task of deciding the winner in accordance with the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

1862 – In his State of the Union Address President Abraham Lincoln reaffirms the necessity of ending slavery as ordered ten weeks earlier in the Emancipation Proclamation.

1865 – Shaw University, the first historically black university in the southern United States, is founded in Raleigh, North Carolina.

1885 – First serving of the soft drink Dr Pepper at a drug store in Waco, Texas.

1913 – The Ford Motor Company introduces the first moving assembly line.

1941 – World War II: Emperor Hirohito of Japan gives the final approval to initiate war against the United States.

1941 – World War II: Fiorello La Guardia, Mayor of New York City and Director of the Office of Civilian Defense, signs Administrative Order 9, creating the Civil Air Patrol.

1952 – The New York Daily News reports the news of Christine Jorgensen, the first notable case of sex reassignment surgery.

1955 – American Civil Rights Movement: In Montgomery, Alabama, seamstress Rosa Parks refuses to give up her bus seat to a white man and is arrested for violating the city's racial segregation laws, an incident which leads to the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

1958 – The Our Lady of the Angels School fire in Chicago kills 92 children and three nuns.

1959 – Cold War: Opening date for signature of the Antarctic Treaty, which sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve and bans military activity on the continent.

1964 – Vietnam War: U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson and his top-ranking advisers meet to discuss plans to bomb North Vietnam.

1969 – Vietnam War: The first draft lottery in the United States is held since World War II.

1974 – TWA Flight 514, a Boeing 727, crashes northwest of Dulles International Airport, killing all 92 people on board.

1974 – Northwest Airlines Flight 6231, another Boeing 727, crashes northwest of John F. Kennedy International Airport.

1984 – NASA conducts the Controlled Impact Demonstration, wherein an airliner is deliberately crashed in order to test technologies and gather data to help improve survivability of crashes.

2001 – Captain Bill Compton brings Trans World Airlines Flight 220, an MD-83, into St. Louis International Airport bringing to an end 76 years of TWA operations following TWA's purchase by American Airlines.

2013 – A derailment of a Metro-North Railroad train near Spuyten Duyvil, Bronx, New York City kills four and injures 61.


1847 – Julia A. Moore, American poet (d. 1920)

1883 – Henry Cadbury, American historian, scholar, and academic (d. 1974)

1911 – Calvin Griffith, Canadian-American businessman (d. 1999)

1926 – Mother Antonia, American-Mexican nun and activist (d. 2013)

1939 – Lee Trevino, American golfer and sportscaster

1940 – Richard Pryor, American comedian, actor, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2005)

1945 – Bette Midler, American singer-songwriter, actress and producer

1958 – Charlene Tilton, American actress and singer

1976 – Matthew Shepard, American murder victim (d. 1998)


1975 – Nellie Fox, American baseball player and coach (b. 1927)

1975 – Anna Roosevelt Halsted, American journalist (b. 1906)

1981 – Russ Manning, American author and illustrator (b. 1929)

1987 – James Baldwin, American author, poet, and critic (b. 1924)

1989 – Alvin Ailey, American dancer and choreographer (b. 1931)