1657 – Spanish forces fail to retake Jamaica at the Battle of Ocho Rios during the Anglo-Spanish War.
1831 – In Southampton County, Virginia, escaped slave Nat Turner is captured and arrested for leading the bloodiest slave rebellion in United States history.
1864 – Helena, Montana is founded after four prospectors discover gold at "Last Chance Gulch".
1922 – Benito Mussolini is made Prime Minister of Italy.
1938 – Orson Welles broadcasts his radio play of H. G. Wells's The War of the Worlds, causing anxiety in some of the audience in the United States.
1941 – World War II: Franklin D. Roosevelt approves U.S. $1 billion in Lend-Lease aid to the Allied nations.
1941 – One thousand five hundred Jews from Pidhaytsi (in western Ukraine) are sent by Nazis to Bełżec extermination camp.
1942 – Lt. Tony Fasson, Able Seaman Colin Grazier and canteen assistant Tommy Brown from HMS Petard board U-559, retrieving material which would lead to the decryption of the German Enigma code.
1944 – Anne and Margot Frank are deported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where they die from disease the following year, shortly before the end of WWII.
1945 – Jackie Robinson of the Kansas City Monarchs signs a contract for the Brooklyn Dodgers to break the baseball color line.
1953 – Cold War: U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower formally approves the top secret document National Security Council Paper No. 162/2, which states that the United States' arsenal of nuclear weapons must be maintained and expanded to counter the communist threat.
1965 – Vietnam War: Near Da Nang, United States Marines repel an intense attack by Viet Cong forces, killing 56 guerrillas.
1970 – In Vietnam, the worst monsoon to hit the area in six years causes severe floods, kills 293, leaves 200,000 homeless and virtually halts the Vietnam War.
1972 – A collision between two commuter trains in Chicago kills 45 and injures 332.
1974 – The Rumble in the Jungle boxing match between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman takes place in Kinshasa, Zaire. Ali wins by KO in the eighth round, regaining the title of World Heavyweight Champion and causing Foreman´s first professional defeat.
1985 – Space Shuttle Challenger lifts off for mission STS-61-A, its final successful mission.
1735 – John Adams, American lawyer and politician, 2nd President of the United States (d. 1826)
1748 – Martha Jefferson, American wife of Thomas Jefferson (d. 1782)
1881 – Elizabeth Madox Roberts, American poet and author (d. 1941)
1882 – William Halsey, Jr., American admiral (d. 1959)
1885 – Ezra Pound, American poet and critic (d. 1972)
1893 – Charles Atlas, Italian-American bodybuilder (d. 1972)
1896 – Ruth Gordon, American actress and screenwriter (d. 1985)
1915 – Fred W. Friendly, American journalist and producer (d. 1998)
1945 – Henry Winkler, American actor, director, and producer
1989 – Nastia Liukin, Russian-American gymnast and actress
1912 – James S. Sherman, American lawyer and politician, 27th Vice President of the United States (b. 1855)
1965 – Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr., American historian and author (b. 1888)
2000 – Steve Allen, American actor, television personality, game show panelist, and talk show host (b. 1921)
2007 – Washoe, American chimpanzee (b. 1965)
2015 – Al Molinaro, American actor (b. 1919)
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