1792 – Mount Hood (Oregon) is named after Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood by Lt. William E. Broughton who sighted the mountain near the mouth of the Willamette River.
1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Wauhatchie: Forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant repel a Confederate attack led by General James Longstreet. Union forces thus open a supply line into Chattanooga, Tennessee.
1901 – In Amherst, Massachusetts nurse Jane Toppan is arrested for murdering the Davis family of Boston with an overdose of morphine.
1901 – Capital punishment: Leon Czolgosz, the assassin of U.S. President William McKinley, is executed by electrocution.
1921 – Second trial of Sacco and Vanzetti in the United States of America.
1921 – The Harvard University football team loses to Centre College, ending a 25-game winning streak. This is considered one of the biggest upsets in college football.
1929 – The New York Stock Exchange crashes in what will be called the Crash of '29 or "Black Tuesday", ending the Great Bull Market of the 1920s and beginning the Great Depression.
1941 – The Holocaust: In the Kaunas Ghetto over 10,000 Jews are shot by German occupiers at the Ninth Fort, a massacre known as the "Great Action".
1942 – The Holocaust: In the United Kingdom, leading clergymen and political figures hold a public meeting to register outrage over Nazi Germany's persecution of Jews.
1944 – World War II: The Soviet Red Army enters Hungary.
1953 – BCPA Flight 304 DC-6 crashes near San Francisco. Pianist William Kapell is among the 19 killed.
1960 – In Louisville, Kentucky, Cassius Clay (who later takes the name Muhammad Ali) wins his first professional fight.
1960 – An airplane carrying the Cal Poly football team crashes on takeoff in Toledo, Ohio.
1964 – A collection of irreplaceable gems, including the 565 carat (113 g) Star of India, is stolen by a group of thieves (among them is "Murph the surf") from the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.
1969 – The first-ever computer-to-computer link is established on ARPANET, the precursor to the Internet.
1991 – The American Galileo spacecraft makes its closest approach to 951 Gaspra, becoming the first probe to visit an asteroid.
1994 – Francisco Martin Duran fires over two dozen shots at the White House (Duran is later convicted of trying to kill US President Bill Clinton).
1998 – Space Shuttle Discovery blasts off on STS-95 with 77-year-old John Glenn on board, making him the oldest person to go into space.
1998 – ATSC HDTV broadcasting in the United States is inaugurated with the launch of STS-95 space shuttle mission.
2008 – Delta Air Lines merges with Northwest Airlines, creating the world's largest airline and reducing the number of US legacy carriers to five.
2012 – Hurricane Sandy hits the east coast of the United States, killing 148 directly and 138 indirectly, while leaving nearly $70 billion in damages and causing major power outages.
1921 – Bill Mauldin, American soldier and cartoonist (d. 2003)
1922 – Neal Hefti, American trumpet player and composer (d. 2008)
1923 – Carl Djerassi, Austrian-American chemist, author, and playwright (d. 2015)
1925 – Dominick Dunne, American journalist and author (d. 2009)
1925 – Zoot Sims, American saxophonist and composer (d. 1985)
1948 – Kate Jackson, American actress, director, and producer
1957 – Dan Castellaneta, American actor, voice artist, singer and producer
1961 – Randy Jackson, American singer-songwriter and dancer
1971 – Daniel J. Bernstein, American mathematician, cryptologist, and academic
1973 – Vonetta Flowers American bobsledder, sprinter, and long jumper
1981 – Amanda Beard, American swimmer
1618 – Walter Raleigh, English admiral, explorer, and politician, (b. 1554)
1877 – Nathan Bedford Forrest, American general and KKK founder (b. 1821)
1892 – William Harnett, American painter (b. 1848)
1897 – Henry George, American journalist, philosopher, and economist (b. 1839)
1901 – Leon Czolgosz, American assassin of William McKinley (b. 1873)
1911 – Joseph Pulitzer, Hungarian-American publisher, lawyer, and politician, founded Pulitzer, Inc. (b. 1847)
1947 – Frances Folsom Cleveland Preston, American wife of Grover Cleveland, 23rd First Lady of the United States (b. 1864)
1953 – William Kapell, American pianist (b. 1922)
1971 – Duane Allman, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
1987 – Woody Herman, American singer, clarinet player, saxophonist, and bandleader (b. 1913)
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