1746 – The College of New Jersey (later renamed Princeton University) receives its charter.
1777 – American Revolutionary War: American defenders of Fort Mercer on the Delaware River repulse repeated Hessian attacks in the Battle of Red Bank.
1784 – Russia founds a colony on Kodiak Island, Alaska.
1790 – Warriors of the Miami people under Chief Little Turtle defeat United States troops under General Josiah Harmar at the site of present-day Fort Wayne, Indiana, in the Northwest Indian War.
1836 – Sam Houston is inaugurated as the first President of the Republic of Texas.
1879 – Using a filament of carbonized thread, Thomas Edison tests the first practical electric incandescent light bulb (it lasted 13½ hours before burning out).
1883 – The Metropolitan Opera House in New York City opens with a performance of Gounod's Faust.
1907 – Panic of 1907: A run on the stock of the Knickerbocker Trust Company sets events in motion that will lead to a depression.
1928 – Phi Sigma Alpha fraternity is founded at the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus.
1934 – In East Liverpool, Ohio, Federal Bureau of Investigation agents shoot and kill notorious bank robber Pretty Boy Floyd.
1957 – Vietnam War: First United States casualties in Vietnam.
1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis: US President John F. Kennedy, after internal counsel from Dwight D. Eisenhower, announces that American reconnaissance planes have discovered Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba, and that he has ordered a naval "quarantine" of the Communist nation.
1966 – The Supremes become the first all-female music group to attain a No. 1 selling album (The Supremes A' Go-Go).
1968 – Apollo program: Apollo 7 safely splashes down in the Atlantic Ocean after orbiting the Earth 163 times.
1972 – Vietnam War: In Saigon, Henry Kissinger and South Vietnamese President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu meet to discuss a proposed cease-fire that had been worked out between Americans and North Vietnamese in Paris.
1976 – Red Dye No. 4 is banned by the US Food and Drug Administration after it is discovered that it causes tumors in the bladders of dogs. The dye is still used in Canada.
1981 – The United States Federal Labor Relations Authority votes to decertify the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization for its strike the previous August.
1983 – Two correctional officers are killed by inmates at the United States Penitentiary in Marion, Illinois. The incident inspires the Supermax model of prisons.
1989 – 11-year-old Jacob Wetterling is kidnapped by a masked gunman as he rode his bike near his home in St. Joseph, Minnesota.
2001 – Grand Theft Auto III was released, popularizing a genre of open-world, action-adventure video games as well as spurring controversy around violence in video games.
1734 – Daniel Boone, American hunter and explorer (d. 1820)
1903 – George Wells Beadle, American geneticist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1989)
1920 – Timothy Leary, American psychologist and author (d. 1996)
1942 – Annette Funicello, American actress and singer (d. 2013)
1948 – Lynette Fromme, American attempted assassin of Gerald Ford
1973 – Ichiro Suzuki, Japanese baseball player
1755 – Elisha Williams, American minister, academic, and jurist (b. 1694)
1934 – Pretty Boy Floyd, American gangster (b. 1904)
1982 – Richard Hugo, American poet and educator (b. 1923)
1992 – Red Barber, American sportscaster (b. 1908)
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