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This Day in History: October 19

Events

1781 – At Yorktown, Virginia, representatives of British commander Lord Cornwallis handed over Cornwallis' sword and formally surrendered to George Washington and the comte de Rochambeau.

1789 – Chief Justice John Jay is sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the United States.

1864 – Battle of Cedar Creek: Union Army under Philip Sheridan destroys a Confederate Army under Jubal Early.

1864 – St. Albans Raid: Confederate raiders launch an attack on Saint Albans, Vermont from Canada.

1943 – Streptomycin, the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, is isolated by researchers at Rutgers University.

1944 – United States forces land in the Philippines.

1950 – The People's Republic of China joins the Korean War by sending thousands of troops across the Yalu River to fight United Nations forces.

1960 – Cold War: The United States government imposes a near-total trade embargo against Cuba, which was lifted in 2015.

1973 – President Richard Nixon rejects an Appeals Court decision that he turn over the Watergate tapes.

1987 – Black Monday: The Dow Jones Industrial Average falls by 22%, 508 points.

2005 – Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.

2014 – Oort cloud Comet Siding Spring makes a close fly-by the planet Mars passing within 140,000 kilometers.

Births

1720 – John Woolman, American-English preacher, journalist, and activist (d. 1772)

1876 – Mordecai Brown, American baseball player, coach, and manager (d. 1945)

1885 – Charles E. Merrill, American banker and philanthropist, co-founded Merrill Lynch Wealth Management (d. 1956)

1898 – Hal B. Wallis, American film producer (d. 1986)

1917 – Walter Munk, Austrian-American oceanographer, author, and academic

1922 – Jack Anderson, American journalist and author (d. 2005)

1928 – Lou Scheimer, American animator, producer, and voice actor, co-founded the Filmation Company (d. 2013)

1956 – Grover Norquist, American activist, founded Americans for Tax Reform

1962 – Evander Holyfield, American boxer and actor

Deaths

1790 – Lyman Hall, American physician and politician, 16th Governor of Georgia (b. 1724)

1893 – Lucy Stone, American activist (b. 1818)

1897 – George Pullman, American engineer and businessman, founded the Pullman Company (b. 1831)

1950 – Edna St. Vincent Millay, American poet and playwright (b. 1892)

1965 – Edward Willis Redfield, American painter and educator (b. 1869)

2003 – Road Warrior Hawk, American wrestler (b. 1960)

2010 – Tom Bosley, American actor and singer (b. 1927)