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This Day in History: October 16

Events

1780 – Royalton, Vermont and Tunbridge, Vermont are the last major raids of the American Revolutionary War.

1781 – George Washington captures Yorktown, Virginia after the Siege of Yorktown.

1846 – William T. G. Morton first demonstrated ether anesthesia at the Massachusetts General Hospital in the Ether Dome.

1859 – John Brown leads a raid on Harpers Ferry, West Virginia.

1869 – The Cardiff Giant, one of the most famous American hoaxes, is "discovered".

1875 – Brigham Young University is founded in Provo, Utah.

1909 – William Howard Taft and Porfirio Díaz hold a summit, a first between a U.S. and a Mexican president, and they only narrowly escape assassination.

1916 – In Brooklyn, New York, Margaret Sanger opens the first family planning clinic in the United States.

1923 – The Walt Disney Company is founded by Walt Disney and his brother, Roy Disney.

1939 – World War II: First attack on British territory by the German Luftwaffe.

1940 – Holocaust: The Warsaw Ghetto is established.

1943 – Holocaust: Raid of the Ghetto of Rome

1944 – Wally Walrus, Woody Woodpecker's first steady foil, debuts in the The Beach Nut, a Walter Lantz's cartoon.

1946 – Nuremberg trials: Execution of the convicted Nazi leaders of the Main Trial.

1968 – United States athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos are kicked off the US team for participating in the 1968 Olympics Black Power salute.

1973 – Henry Kissinger and Lê Đức Thọ are awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

1995 – The Million Man March takes place in Washington, D.C.

Births

1758 – Noah Webster, American lexicographer and author (d. 1843)

1795 – William Buell Sprague, American minister, historian, and author (d. 1876)

1804 – Benjamin Russell, American painter and educator (d. 1885)

1831 – Lucy Stanton, American activist (d. 1910)

1881 – William Orthwein, American swimmer and water polo player (d. 1955)

1888 – Eugene O'Neill, American playwright, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1953)

1898 – William O. Douglas, American lawyer and jurist (d. 1980)

1931 – Charles Colson, American lawyer and politician (d. 2012)

1947 – David Zucker, American director, producer, and screenwriter

Deaths

1730 – Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac, French-American explorer and politician, 3rd French Governor of Louisiana (b. 1658)

1946 – Nuremberg trial executions of the Main Trial:

Hans Frank, German lawyer and politician (b. 1900)

Wilhelm Frick, German lawyer and politician, German Minister of the Interior (b. 1877)

Alfred Jodl, German general (b. 1890)

Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Austrian SS officer (b. 1903)

Wilhelm Keitel, German field marshal (b. 1882)

Alfred Rosenberg, Estonian architect and politician (b. 1893)

Fritz Sauckel, German sailor and politician (b. 1894)

Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Austrian lawyer and politician, 16th Federal Chancellor of Austria (b. 1892)

Julius Streicher, German journalist and politician (b. 1887)

Joachim von Ribbentrop, German lieutenant and politician, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Germany (b. 1893)

1959 – George Marshall, American general and politician, 3rd United States Secretary of Defense, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1880)

1973 – Gene Krupa, American drummer, composer, and actor (b. 1909)

1997 – James A. Michener, American author and philanthropist (b. 1907)

2004 – Pierre Salinger, American journalist and politician, 11th White House Press Secretary (b. 1925)

2015 – James W. Fowler, American psychologist and academic (b. 1940)

2015 – Vera Williams, American author and illustrator (b. 1927)