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This Day in History: November 9

Events

1620 – Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower sight land at Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

1764 – Mary Campbell, a captive of the Lenape during the French and Indian War, is turned over to forces commanded by Colonel Henry Bouquet.

1780 – American Revolutionary War: In the Battle of Fishdam Ford a force of British and Loyalist troops fail in a surprise attack against the South Carolina Patriot militia under Brigadier General Thomas Sumter.

1822 – The Action of 9 November 1822 between USS Alligator and a squadron of pirate schooners off the coast of Cuba.

1851 – Kentucky marshals abduct abolitionist minister Calvin Fairbank from Jeffersonville, Indiana, and take him to Kentucky to stand trial for helping a slave escape.

1857 – The Atlantic is founded in Boston, Massachusetts.

1862 – American Civil War: Union General Ambrose Burnside assumes command of the Army of the Potomac, after George B. McClellan is removed.

1872 – The Great Boston Fire of 1872.

1887 – The United States receives rights to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

1906 – Theodore Roosevelt is the first sitting President of the United States to make an official trip outside the country. He did so to inspect progress on the Panama Canal.

1913 – The Great Lakes Storm of 1913, the most destructive natural disaster ever to hit the lakes, destroys 19 ships and kills more than 250 people.

1923 – In Munich, Germany, police and government troops crush the Beer Hall Putsch in Bavaria. The failed coup is the work of the Nazis.

1935 – The Congress of Industrial Organizations is founded in Atlantic City, New Jersey, by eight trade unions belonging to the American Federation of Labor.

1937 – Japanese troops take control of Shanghai, China.

1938 – The Nazi German diplomat Ernst vom Rath dies from the fatal gunshot wounds of Jewish resistance fighter Herschel Grynszpan, an act which the Nazis used as an excuse to instigate the 1938 national pogrom, also known as Kristallnacht (Crystal Night).

1960 – Robert McNamara is named president of Ford Motor Company, the first non-Ford to serve in that post. A month later, he resigned to join the administration of newly elected John F. Kennedy.

1965 – Several U.S. states and parts of Canada are hit by a series of blackouts lasting up to 13 hours in the Northeast blackout of 1965.

1965 – The Catholic Worker Movement member Roger Allen LaPorte, protesting against the Vietnam War, sets himself on fire in front of the United Nations building.

1967 – Apollo program: NASA launches the unmanned Apollo 4 test spacecraft atop the first Saturn V rocket from Cape Kennedy, Florida.

1967 – The first issue of Rolling Stone magazine is published.

1970 – Vietnam War: The Supreme Court of the United States votes 6–3 against hearing a case to allow Massachusetts to enforce its law granting residents the right to refuse military service in an undeclared war.

1979 – Nuclear false alarm: The NORAD computers and the Alternate National Military Command Center in Fort Ritchie, Maryland detected purported massive Soviet nuclear strike. After reviewing the raw data from satellites and checking the early-warning radars, the alert is cancelled.

1989 – Cold War: Fall of the Berlin Wall. Communist-controlled East Germany opens checkpoints in the Berlin Wall allowing its citizens to travel to West Germany. This key event led to the eventual reunification of East and West Germany, and fall of communism in eastern Europe including Russia.

1998 – A US federal judge orders 37 US brokerage houses to pay 1.03 billion United States dollars to cheated NASDAQ investors to compensate for price fixing. This is the largest civil settlement in United States history.

Births

1731 – Benjamin Banneker, American farmer, surveyor, and author (d. 1806)

1801 – Gail Borden, American surveyor and publisher, invented condensed milk (d. 1874)

1802 – Elijah Parish Lovejoy, American minister, journalist, and activist (d. 1837)

1825 – A. P. Hill, American general (d. 1865)

1915 – Sargent Shriver, American lieutenant, lawyer, and politician, 21st United States Ambassador to France (d. 2011)

1918 – Spiro Agnew, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 39th Vice President of the United States (d. 1996)

1920 – Byron De La Beckwith, American assassin of Medgar Evers (d. 2001)

1922 – Dorothy Dandridge, American actress, singer, and dancer (d. 1965)

1928 – Anne Sexton, American poet and academic (d. 1974)

1934 – Carl Sagan, American astronomer, astrophysicist, and cosmologist (d. 1996)

1935 – Bob Gibson, American baseball player and manager

1951 – Lou Ferrigno, American bodybuilder and actor

Deaths

1880 – Edwin Drake, American businessman (b. 1819)

1924 – Henry Cabot Lodge, American historian and politician (b. 1850)

1988 – John N. Mitchell, American lieutenant, lawyer, and politician, 67th United States Attorney General (b. 1913)

2003 – Art Carney, American actor and singer (b. 1918)

2006 – Ed Bradley, American journalist (b. 1941)

2006 – Ellen Willis, American journalist and activist (b. 1941)