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This Day in History: November 19

Events

1493 – Christopher Columbus goes ashore on an island he first saw the day before. He names it San Juan Bautista (later renamed Puerto Rico).

1794 – The United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain sign Jay's Treaty, which attempts to resolve some of the lingering problems left over from the American Revolutionary War.

1863 – American Civil War: U.S. President Abraham Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address at the dedication ceremony for the military cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

1916 – Samuel Goldwyn and Edgar Selwyn establish Goldwyn Pictures.

1943 – Holocaust: Nazis liquidate Janowska concentration camp in Lemberg (Lviv), western Ukraine, murdering at least 6,000 Jews after a failed uprising and mass escape attempt.

1944 – World War II: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt announces the 6th War Loan Drive, aimed at selling US$14 billion in war bonds to help pay for the war effort.

1950 – US General Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes Supreme Commander of NATO-Europe.

1955 – National Review publishes its first issue.

1959 – The Ford Motor Company announces the discontinuation of the unpopular Edsel.

1969 – Apollo program: Apollo 12 astronauts Pete Conrad and Alan Bean land at Oceanus Procellarum (the "Ocean of Storms") and become the third and fourth humans to walk on the Moon.

1979 – Iran hostage crisis: Iranian leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini orders the release of 13 female and black American hostages being held at the US Embassy in Tehran.

1985 – Cold War: In Geneva, U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev meet for the first time.

1985 – Pennzoil wins a US$10.53 billion judgment against Texaco, in the largest civil verdict in the history of the United States, stemming from Texaco executing a contract to buy Getty Oil after Pennzoil had entered into an unsigned, yet still binding, buyout contract with Getty.

1998 – Lewinsky scandal: The United States House of Representatives Judiciary Committee begins impeachment hearings against U.S. President Bill Clinton.

1998 – Vincent van Gogh's Portrait of the Artist Without Beard sells at auction for US$71.5 million.

2004 – The Malice at the Palace: The worst brawl in NBA history, Ron Artest suspended 86 games (rest of season), Stephen Jackson suspended 30 games

Births

1752 – George Rogers Clark, American general (d. 1818)

1831 – James A. Garfield, American general, lawyer, and politician, 20th President of the United States (d. 1881)

1887 – James B. Sumner, American chemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1955)

1897 – Quentin Roosevelt, American lieutenant and pilot (d. 1918)

1905 – Tommy Dorsey, American trombonist, composer and bandleader (d. 1956)

1909 – Peter Drucker, Austrian-American theorist, educator, and author (d. 2005)

1921 – Roy Campanella, American baseball player and coach (d. 1993)

1933 – Larry King, American journalist and talk show host

1933 – Jerry Sheindlin, American judge and author

1938 – Ted Turner, American businessman and philanthropist, founded Turner Broadcasting System

1941 – Dan Haggerty, American actor and producer (d. 2016)

1942 – Calvin Klein, American fashion designer, founded Calvin Klein Inc.

1956 – Eileen Collins, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut

1958 – Annette Gordon-Reed, American historian, author, and academic

1962 – Jodie Foster, American actress, director, and producer

1966 – Gail Devers, American sprinter and hurdler

1977 – Kerri Strug, American gymnast and runner

Deaths

1887 – Emma Lazarus, American poet (b. 1849)

1897 – William Seymour Tyler, American historian and academic (b. 1810)

1985 – Stepin Fetchit, American actor, singer, and dancer (b. 1907)

1988 – Christina Onassis, American-Greek businesswoman (b. 1950)