1520 – The Strait of Magellan, the passage immediately south of mainland South America connecting the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans, is first discovered and navigated by European explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the first recorded circumnavigation voyage.
1555 – French Huguenots establish the France Antarctique colony in present-day Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
1683 – The British Crown colony of New York is subdivided into 12 counties.
1765 – The British Parliament enacts the Stamp Act on the Thirteen Colonies in order to help pay for British military operations in North America.
1800 – John Adams becomes the first President of the United States to live in the Executive Mansion (later renamed the White House).
1848 – In Boston, Massachusetts, the first medical school for women, The Boston Female Medical School (which later merged with the Boston University School of Medicine), opens.
1859 – The current Cape Lookout, North Carolina, lighthouse is lit for the first time. Its first-order Fresnel lens can be seen for about 19 miles (31 km) in good conditions.
1861 – American Civil War: U.S. President Abraham Lincoln appoints George B. McClellan as the commander of the Union Army, replacing General Winfield Scott.
1870 – In the United States, the Weather Bureau (later renamed the National Weather Service) makes its first official meteorological forecast.
1894 – Thomas Edison films American sharpshooter Annie Oakley, which is instrumental in her hiring by Buffalo Bill for his Wild West Show.
1896 – A picture showing the bare breasts of a woman appears in National Geographic magazine for the first time.
1897 – The first Library of Congress building opens its doors to the public. The Library had been housed in the Congressional Reading Room in the U.S. Capitol.
1901 – Sigma Phi Epsilon, the largest national male collegiate fraternity, is established at Richmond College, in Richmond, Virginia.
1915 – Parris Island is officially designated a United States Marine Corps Recruit Depot.
1918 – Malbone Street Wreck: The worst rapid transit accident in US history occurs under the intersection of Malbone Street and Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn, New York City, with at least 102 deaths.
1920 – American fishing schooner Esperanto defeats the Canadian fishing schooner Delawana in the First International Fishing Schooner Championship Races in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
1938 – Seabiscuit defeats War Admiral in an upset victory during a match race deemed "the match of the century" in horse racing.
1939 – The first rabbit born after artificial insemination is exhibited to the world.
1941 – American photographer Ansel Adams takes a picture of a moonrise over the town of Hernandez, New Mexico that would become one of the most famous images in the history of photography.
1942 – World War II: Matanikau Offensive begins during the Guadalcanal Campaign and ends three days later with an American victory.
1943 – World War II: In the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay, United States Marines, the 3rd Marine Division, land on Bougainville in the Solomon Islands.
1943 – World War II: In support of the landings on Bougainville, U.S. aircraft carrier forces attack the huge Japanese base at Rabaul.
1944 – World War II: Units of the British Army land at Walcheren in the Netherlands.
1944 – World War II: A United States Army Air Forces F-13 Superfortress conducted the first flight by an Allied aircraft over the Tokyo region of Japan since the 1942 Doolittle Raid.
1950 – Puerto Rican nationalists Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo attempt to assassinate US President Harry S. Truman at Blair House.
1952 – Operation Ivy: The United States successfully detonates the first large hydrogen bomb, codenamed "Mike" ["M" for megaton], in the Eniwetok atoll, located in the Marshall Islands in the central Pacific Ocean. The explosion had a yield of ten megatons.
1955 – The bombing of United Airlines Flight 629 occurs near Longmont, Colorado, killing all 39 passengers and five crew members aboard the Douglas DC-6B airliner.
1957 – The Mackinac Bridge, the world's longest suspension bridge between anchorages at the time, opens to traffic connecting Michigan's upper and lower peninsulas.
1960 – While campaigning for President of the United States, John F. Kennedy announces his idea of the Peace Corps.
1961 – Fifty thousand women in 60 cities participate in the inaugural Women Strike for Peace (WSP) against nuclear proliferation.
1963 – The Arecibo Observatory in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, with the largest radio telescope ever constructed, officially opens.
1968 – The Motion Picture Association of America's film rating system is officially introduced, originating with the ratings G, M, R, and X.
1973 – Watergate scandal: Leon Jaworski is appointed as the new Watergate Special Prosecutor.
1982 – Honda becomes the first Asian automobile company to produce cars in the United States with the opening of its factory in Marysville, Ohio. The Honda Accord is the first car produced there.
2013 – A gunman opens fire at Los Angeles International Airport, killing a US Transportation Security Administration employee, and wounding seven other people.
1849 – William Merritt Chase, American painter and educator (d. 1916)
1871 – Stephen Crane, American poet and author (d. 1900)
1880 – Grantland Rice, American journalist and poet (d. 1954)
1915 – Margaret Taylor-Burroughs, American painter, poet, and educator, co-founded the DuSable Museum of African American History (d. 2010)
1940 – Barry Sadler, American sergeant, singer-songwriter, and actor (d. 1989)
1950 – Mitch Kapor, American computer programmer and businessman, founded Lotus Software and Electronic Frontier Foundation
1972 – Jenny McCarthy, American model, actress, and author
1955 – Dale Carnegie, American author and educator (b. 1888)
1972 – Ezra Pound, American poet and critic (b. 1885)
1979 – Mamie Eisenhower, American wife of Dwight D. Eisenhower, 36th First Lady of the United States (b. 1896)
1980 – Victor Sen Yung, American actor and singer (b. 1915)
1999 – Walter Payton, American football player and race car driver (b. 1954)
2011 – Dorothy Howell Rodham, American mother of Hillary Clinton (b. 1919)
2015 – Charles Duncan Michener, American entomologist and academic (b. 1918)
2015 – Fred Thompson, American actor, lawyer, and politician (b. 1942)
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