1738 – A treaty between Pennsylvania and Maryland ends the Conojocular War with settlement of a boundary dispute and exchange of prisoners.
1865 – In Mobile, Alabama, 300 are killed when an ordnance depot explodes.
1878 – Gilbert and Sullivan's comic opera H.M.S. Pinafore opens at the Opera Comique in London.
1925 – Scopes Trial: John T. Scopes is indicted for teaching Charles Darwin's theory of evolution in Tennessee.
1935 – Jesse Owens of Ohio State University breaks three world records and ties a fourth at the Big Ten Conference Track and Field Championships in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
1936 – The Remington Rand strike, led by the American Federation of Labor, begins.
1953 – Nuclear testing: At the Nevada Test Site, the United States conduct their first and only nuclear artillery test.
1953 – The first public television station in the United States officially begins broadcasting as KUHT from the campus of the University of Houston.
1955 – In the United States, a night-time F5 tornado strikes the small city of Udall, Kansas, killing 80 and injuring 273. It is the deadliest tornado to ever occur in the state and the 23rd deadliest in the U.S.
1961 – Apollo program: U.S. President John F. Kennedy announces before a special joint session of the Congress his goal to initiate a project to put a "man on the Moon" before the end of the decade.
1966 – Explorer program: Explorer 32 launches.
1968 – Gateway Arch Saint Louis Gateway Arch is dedicated.
1977 – Star Wars is released in theaters.
1979 – American Airlines Flight 191: In Chicago, a McDonnell Douglas DC-10 crashes during takeoff at O'Hare International Airport killing all 271 on board and two people on the ground.
1979 – Etan Patz, who is six years old, disappears from the street just two blocks away from his home in New York City, prompting an international search for the child, and causing the U.S. President Ronald Reagan to designate May 25 as National Missing Children's Day (in 1983).
1986 – Hands Across America takes place.
2001 – Erik Weihenmayer, 32 years old, of Boulder, Colorado, becomes the first blind person to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
2008 – NASA's Phoenix lander lands in Green Valley region of Mars to search for environments suitable for water and microbial life.
2011 – Oprah Winfrey airs her last show, ending her twenty-five-year run of The Oprah Winfrey Show.
2012 – The Dragon became the first commercial spacecraft to successfully rendezvous with the International Space Station.
1803 – Ralph Waldo Emerson, American poet and philosopher (d. 1882)
1865 – John Mott, American evangelist and saint, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1955)
1878 – Bill Robinson, American actor and dancer (d. 1949)
1889 – Igor Sikorsky, Russian-American aircraft designer, founded Sikorsky Aircraft (d. 1972)
1897 – Gene Tunney, American boxer and soldier (d. 1978)
1898 – Bennett Cerf, American publisher, co-founded Random House (d. 1971)
1908 – Theodore Roethke, American poet and academic (d. 1963)
1921 – Hal David, American songwriter and composer (d. 2012)
1927 – Robert Ludlum, American soldier and author (d. 2001)
1929 – Beverly Sills, American soprano and actress (d. 2007)
1932 – John Gregory Dunne, American author, screenwriter, and critic (d. 2003)
1938 – Raymond Carver, American author and poet (d. 1988)
1943 – Leslie Uggams, American actress and singer
1944 – Robert MacPherson, American mathematician and academic
1944 – Frank Oz, English-American puppeteer, voice actor, and director
1960 – Amy Klobuchar, American lawyer and politician
1984 – A. J. Foyt IV, American race car driver
1985 – Roman Reigns, American football player and wrestler
1994 – Aly Raisman, American gymnast
1919 – Madam C. J. Walker, American businesswoman and philanthropist, founded the Madame C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company (b. 1867)
2003 – Sloan Wilson, American author and poet (b. 1920)
2012 – William Hanley, American author and screenwriter (b. 1931)
2012 – Peter D. Sieruta, American author and critic (b. 1958)
2015 – Mary Ellen Mark, American photographer and journalist (b. 1940)
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