1565 – The city of Rio de Janeiro is founded.
1633 – Samuel de Champlain reclaims his role as commander of New France on behalf of Cardinal Richelieu.
1642 – Georgeana, Massachusetts (now known as York, Maine), becomes the first incorporated city in the United States.
1692 – Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne and Tituba are brought before local magistrates in Salem Village, Massachusetts, beginning what would become known as the Salem witch trials.
1713 – The siege and destruction of Fort Neoheroka begins during the Tuscarora War in North Carolina, effectively opening up the colony's interior to European colonization.
1781 – The Continental Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation.
1790 – The first United States census is authorized.
1803 – Ohio is admitted as the 17th U.S. state.
1805 – Justice Samuel Chase is acquitted at the end of his impeachment trial by the U.S. Senate.
1836 – A convention of delegates from 57 Texas communities convenes in Washington-on-the-Brazos, Texas, to deliberate independence from Mexico.
1845 – United States President John Tyler signs a bill authorizing the United States to annex the Republic of Texas.
1847 – The state of Michigan formally abolishes capital punishment.
1867 – Nebraska becomes the 37th U.S. state; Lancaster, Nebraska is renamed Lincoln and becomes the state capital.
1868 – The Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity is founded at the University of Virginia.
1872 – Yellowstone National Park is established as the world's first national park.
1873 – E. Remington and Sons in Ilion, New York begins production of the first practical typewriter.
1893 – Electrical engineer Nikola Tesla gives the first public demonstration of radio in St. Louis, Missouri.
1910 – The worst avalanche in United States history buries a Great Northern Railway train in northeastern King County, Washington, killing 96 people.
1917 – The U.S. government releases the unencrypted text of the Zimmermann Telegram to the public.
1932 – Charles Lindbergh's son is kidnapped.
1936 – The Hoover Dam is completed.
1936 – A strike occurs aboard the S.S. California, leading to the demise of the International Seamen's Union and the creation of the National Maritime Union.
1941 – World War II: Bulgaria signs the Tripartite Pact, allying itself with the Axis powers.
1941 – W47NV begins operations in Nashville, Tennessee becoming the first FM radio station in the U.S.
1942 – World War II: Japanese forces landed in 3 different landing sites to capture Java, main island of Dutch East Indies: Merak and Banten Bay (Banten), Eretan Wetan (Indramayu) and Kragan (Rembang).
1953 – Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin suffers a stroke and collapses; he dies four days later.
1954 – Nuclear weapons testing: The Castle Bravo, a 15-megaton hydrogen bomb, is detonated on Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean, resulting in the worst radioactive contamination ever caused by the United States.
1954 – Puerto Rican nationalists attack the United States Capitol building, injuring five Representatives.
1956 – The International Air Transport Association finalizes a draft of the Radiotelephony spelling alphabet for the International Civil Aviation Organization.
1958 – Samuel Alphonsus Stritch is appointed Pro-Prefect of the Propagation of Faith and thus becomes the first American member of the Roman Curia.
1961 – United States President John F. Kennedy establishes the Peace Corps.
1971 – A bomb explodes in a men's room in the United States Capitol: The Weather Underground claims responsibility.
1974 – Watergate scandal: Seven are indicted for their role in the Watergate break-in and charged with conspiracy to obstruct justice.
1989 – The United States becomes a member of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.
1995 – Yahoo! is incorporated.
1998 – Titanic became the first film to gross over $1 billion worldwide.
2002 – U.S. invasion of Afghanistan: Operation Anaconda begins in eastern Afghanistan.
2002 – The Envisat environmental satellite successfully reaches an orbit 800 kilometers (500 mi) above the Earth on its 11th launch, carrying the heaviest payload to date at 8500 kilograms (8.5 tons).
2003 – Management of the United States Customs Service and the United States Secret Service move to the United States Department of Homeland Security.
2003 – The International Criminal Court holds its inaugural session in The Hague.
2005 – In Roper v. Simmons, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that the execution of juveniles found guilty of murder is unconstitutional.
2006 – English-language Wikipedia reaches its one millionth article, Jordanhill railway station.
2007 – Tornadoes break out across the southern United States, killing at least 20; eight of the deaths are at Enterprise High School (Alabama).
2013 – SpaceX CRS-2 is launched into outer space.
1904 – Glenn Miller, American trombonist, composer, and bandleade (d. 1944)
1914 – Harry Caray, American sportscaster (d. 1998)
1914 – Ralph Ellison, American author and critic (d. 1994)
1917 – Robert Lowell, American poet and academic (d. 1977)
1922 – William Gaines, American publisher (d. 1992)
1924 – Deke Slayton, American soldier, pilot, and astronaut (d. 1993)
1927 – Harry Belafonte, American singer-songwriter and actor
1927 – Robert Bork, American lawyer and scholar, United States Attorney General (d. 2012)
1954 – Ron Howard, American actor, director, and producer
1984 – Jackie Coogan, American actor (b. 1914)
1991 – Edwin H. Land, American scientist and businessman, co-founded the Polaroid Corporation (b. 1909)
2013 – Bonnie Franklin, American actress and singer (b. 1944)
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