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This Day in History: June 22

Events

1774 – The British pass the Quebec Act, setting out rules of governance for the colony of Quebec in British North America.

1807 – In the ChesapeakeLeopard Affair, the British warship HMS Leopard attacks and boards the American frigate USS Chesapeake.

1813 – War of 1812: After learning of American plans for a surprise attack on Beaver Dams in Ontario, Laura Secord sets out on a 30 kilometer journey on foot to warn Lieutenant James FitzGibbon.

1839 – Cherokee leaders Major Ridge, John Ridge, and Elias Boudinot are assassinated for signing the Treaty of New Echota, which had resulted in the Trail of Tears.

1898 – Spanish–American War: United States Marines land in Cuba.

1918 – The Hammond Circus Train Wreck kills 86 and injures 127 near Hammond, Indiana.

1922 – Herrin Massacre: Nineteen strikebreakers and three union miners are killed in Herrin, Illinois.

1940 – France is forced to sign the Second Compiègne armistice with Germany.

1941 – Nazi Germany invades the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa.

1942 – Erwin Rommel is promoted to Field Marshal after the capture of Tobruk.

1942 – Pledge of Allegiance formally adopted by Congress

1944 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs into law the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, commonly known as the G.I. Bill.

1945 – The Battle of Okinawa comes to an end.

1969 – The Cuyahoga River catches fire in Cleveland, Ohio, drawing national attention to water pollution, and spurring the passing of the Clean Water Act and the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency.

1978 – Charon, a satellite of the dwarf planet Pluto, is discovered by American astronomer James W. Christy.

1990 – Checkpoint Charlie is dismantled in Berlin.

2009 – A Washington D.C Metro train was traveling southbound at the Fort Totten station when it collided into another train sitting in the station. Nine people were killed in the collision (eight passengers and the train operator) and at least 80 others were injured.

Births

1757 – George Vancouver, English lieutenant and explorer (d. 1798)

1899 – Richard Gurley Drew, American engineer, invented Masking tape (d. 1980)

1903 – John Dillinger, American bank robber (d. 1934)

1906 – Anne Morrow Lindbergh, American pilot and author (d. 2001)

1906 – Billy Wilder, Austrian-American director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2002)

1922 – Bill Blass, American fashion designer (d. 2002)

1933 – Dianne Feinstein, American politician, 38th Mayor of San Francisco, U.S. Senator from California

1934 – James Bjorken, American physicist, author, and academic

1941 – Ed Bradley, American journalist (d. 2006)

1943 – Brit Hume, American journalist and author

1954 – Freddie Prinze, American comedian and actor (d. 1977)

1960 – Erin Brockovich, American lawyer and environmentalist

1973 – Carson Daly, American radio and television host

Deaths

1945 – Isamu Chō, Japanese general (b. 1895)

1945 – Mitsuru Ushijima, Japanese general (b. 1887)

1965 – David O. Selznick, American screenwriter and producer (b. 1902)

1969 – Judy Garland, American actress and singer (b. 1922)

1987 – Fred Astaire, American actor, singer, and dancer (b. 1899)

1993 – Pat Nixon, American economist and educator, 44th First Lady of the United States (b. 1912)

2004 – Bob Bemer, American computer scientist and engineer (b. 1920)

2004 – Mattie Stepanek, American poet and author (b. 1990)

2008 – George Carlin, American comedian, actor, and author (b. 1937)