1610 – John Guy sets sail from Bristol with 39 other colonists for Newfoundland.
1775 – The Second Continental Congress adopts the Olive Branch Petition.
1813 – War of 1812: Three weeks of British raids on Fort Schlosser, Black Rock and Plattsburgh, New York commence.
1814 – War of 1812: Battle of Chippawa: American Major General Jacob Brown defeats British General Phineas Riall at Chippawa, Ontario.
1915 – The Liberty Bell leaves Philadelphia by special train on its way to the Panama–Pacific International Exposition. This is the last trip outside Philadelphia that the custodians of the bell intend to permit.
1934 – "Bloody Thursday": Police open fire on striking longshoremen in San Francisco.
1935 – The National Labor Relations Act, which governs labor relations in the United States, is signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1937 – Spam, the luncheon meat, is introduced into the market by the Hormel Foods Corporation.
1940 – World War II: The United Kingdom and the Vichy France government break off diplomatic relations.
1941 – World War II: Operation Barbarossa: German troops reach the Dnieper river.
1943 – World War II: An Allied invasion fleet sails for Sicily (Operation Husky, July 10, 1943).
1943 – World War II: German forces begin a massive offensive against the Soviet Union at the Battle of Kursk, also known as Operation Citadel.
1945 – World War II: The liberation of the Philippines is declared.
1946 – The bikini goes on sale after debuting during an outdoor fashion show at the Molitor Pool in Paris, France.
1948 – National Health Service Acts create the national public health system in the United Kingdom.
1950 – Korean War: Task Force Smith: American and North Korean forces first clash, in the Battle of Osan.
1954 – Elvis Presley records his first single, "That's All Right," at Sun Records in Memphis, Tennessee.
1962 – Algeria becomes independent from France.
1971 – Right to vote: The Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, lowering the voting age from 21 to 18 years, is formally certified by President Richard Nixon.
1973 – A boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) in Kingman, Arizona, following a fire that broke out as propane was being transferred from a railroad car to a storage tank, kills eleven firefighters.
1975 – Arthur Ashe becomes the first black man to win the Wimbledon singles title.
1989 – Iran–Contra affair: Oliver North is sentenced by U.S. District Judge Gerhard A. Gesell to a three-year suspended prison term, two years probation, $150,000 in fines and 1,200 hours community service. His convictions are later overturned.
1996 – Dolly the sheep becomes the first mammal cloned from an adult cell.
1999 – U.S. President Bill Clinton imposes trade and economic sanctions against the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
1586 – Thomas Hooker, English-born founder of the Colony of Connecticut (d. 1647)
1653 – Thomas Pitt, English businessman and politician (d. 1726)
1675 – Mary Walcott, American witness at the Salem witch trials (d. 1719)
1794 – Sylvester Graham, American minister and activist (d. 1851)
1801 – David Farragut, American admiral (d. 1870)
1810 – P. T. Barnum, American businessman, co-founded Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus (d. 1891)
1860 – Robert Bacon, American colonel and politician, 39th United States Secretary of State (d. 1919)
1888 – Herbert Spencer Gasser, American physiologist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1963)
1891 – John Howard Northrop, American chemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1987)
1902 – Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., American colonel and politician, 3rd United States Ambassador to the United Nations (d. 1985)
1904 – Ernst Mayr, German-American biologist and ornithologist (d. 2005)
1904 – Milburn Stone, American actor (d. 1980)
1950 – Huey Lewis, American singer-songwriter and actor
1985 – Megan Rapinoe, American soccer player
1996 – Dolly, Scottish sheep (d. 2003)
1863 – Lewis Armistead, American general (b. 1817)
1991 – Howard Nemerov, American poet and essayist (b. 1920)
1998 – Sid Luckman, American football player (b. 1916)
2002 – Ted Williams, American baseball player and manager (b. 1918)
2005 – James Stockdale, American admiral (b. 1923)
2006 – Kenneth Lay, American businessman (b. 1942)
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