1758 – French and Indian War: The Siege of Louisbourg ends with British forces defeating the French and taking control of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.
1775 – The office that would later become the United States Post Office Department is established by the Second Continental Congress.
1788 – New York ratifies the United States Constitution and becomes the 11th state of the United States.
1847 – Liberia declares its independence.
1861 – American Civil War: George B. McClellan assumes command of the Army of the Potomac following a disastrous Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run.
1863 – American Civil War: Morgan's Raid ends; At Salineville, Ohio, Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and 360 of his volunteers are captured by Union forces.
1908 – United States Attorney General Charles Joseph Bonaparte issues an order to immediately staff the Office of the Chief Examiner (later renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation).
1941 – World War II: In response to the Japanese occupation of French Indochina, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the seizure of all Japanese assets in the United States.
1944 – World War II: The Soviet Army enters Lviv, a major city in western Ukraine, capturing it from the Nazis. Only 300 Jews survive out of 160,000 living in Lviv prior to occupation.
1945 – The Potsdam Declaration is signed in Potsdam, Germany.
1945 – The United States Navy cruiser USS Indianapolis arrives at Tinian with parts of the warhead for the Hiroshima atomic bomb.
1946 – Aloha Airlines begins service from Honolulu International Airport
1947 – Cold War: U.S. President Harry S. Truman signs the National Security Act of 1947 into United States law creating the Central Intelligence Agency, United States Department of Defense, United States Air Force, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the United States National Security Council.
1948 – U.S. President Harry S. Truman signs Executive Order 9981 desegregating the military of the United States.
1951 – Walt Disney's 13th animated film, Alice in Wonderland, premieres in London, England, United Kingdom.
1953 – Arizona Governor John Howard Pyle orders an anti-polygamy law enforcement crackdown on residents of Short Creek, Arizona, which becomes known as the Short Creek raid.
1953 – Soldiers from the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment repel a number of Chinese assaults against a key position known as The Hook during the Battle of the Samichon River, just hours before the Armistice Agreement is signed, ending the Korean War.
1958 – Explorer program: Explorer 4 is launched.
1963 – Syncom 2, the world's first geosynchronous satellite, is launched from Cape Canaveral on a Delta B booster.
1968 – Vietnam War: South Vietnamese opposition leader Trương Đình Dzu is sentenced to five years hard labor for advocating the formation of a coalition government as a way to move toward an end to the war.
1971 – Apollo program: Launch of Apollo 15 on the first Apollo "J-Mission", and first use of a Lunar Roving Vehicle.
the provincial government.
1989 – A federal grand jury indicts Cornell University student Robert T. Morris, Jr. for releasing the Morris worm, thus becoming the first person to be prosecuted under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.
1990 – The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is signed into law by President George Bush.
2005 – Space Shuttle program: STS-114 Mission: Launch of Discovery, NASA's first scheduled flight mission after the Columbia Disaster in 2003.
2013 – A gunman kills six people in Hialeah, Florida, and gets fatally shot by police.
1739 – George Clinton, American general and politician, 4th Vice President of the United States (d. 1812)
1796 – George Catlin, American painter, author, and traveler (d. 1872)
1846 – Texas Jack Omohundro, American hunter and actor (d. 1880)
1903 – Estes Kefauver, American lawyer and politician (d. 1963)
1923 – Jan Berenstain, American author and illustrator (d. 2012)
1928 – Stanley Kubrick, American director, producer, screenwriter, and cinematographer (d. 1999)
1940 – Mary Jo Kopechne, American secretary and educator (d. 1969)
1945 – Betty Davis, American singer-songwriter
1533 – Atahualpa, Inca emperor murdered by Francisco Pizarro (b. ca. 1500)
1863 – Sam Houston, American general and politician, 7th Governor of Texas (b. 1793)
1925 – William Jennings Bryan, American lawyer and politician, 41st United States Secretary of State (b. 1860)
1926 – Robert Todd Lincoln, American lawyer and politician, 35th United States Secretary of War, son of Abraham Lincoln (b. 1843)
1971 – Diane Arbus, American photographer and academic (b. 1923)
1984 – George Gallup, American mathematician and statistician, founded the Gallup Company (b. 1901)
1984 – Ed Gein, American murderer (b. 1906)
2000 – John Tukey, American mathematician and academic (b. 1915)
2004 – William A. Mitchell, American chemist, created Pop Rocks and Cool Whip (b. 1911)
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