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This Day in History: July 25

Events

1536 – Sebastián de Belalcázar on his search of El Dorado founds the city of Santiago de Cali.

1567 – Don Diego de Losada founds the city of Santiago de Leon de Caracas, modern-day Caracas, the capital city of Venezuela.

1609 – The English ship Sea Venture, en route to Virginia, is deliberately driven ashore during a storm at Bermuda to prevent its sinking; the survivors go on to found a new colony there.

1693 – Ignacio de Maya founds the Real Santiago de las Sabinas, now known as Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo León, Mexico.

1722 – Dummer's War begins along the Maine-Massachusetts border.

1755 – British governor Charles Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council order the deportation of the Acadians. Thousands of Acadians are sent to the British Colonies in America, France and England. Some later move to Louisiana, while others resettle in New Brunswick.

1759 – French and Indian War: In Western New York, British forces capture Fort Niagara from the French, who subsequently abandon Fort Rouillé.

1783 – American Revolutionary War: The war's last action, the Siege of Cuddalore, is ended by a preliminary peace agreement.

1814 – War of 1812: Battle of Lundy's Lane: Reinforcements arrive near Niagara Falls for General Riall's British and Canadian forces and a bloody, all-night battle with Jacob Brown's Americans commences at 18.00; the Americans retreat to Fort Erie.

1853 – Joaquin Murrieta, the famous Californio bandit known as "Robin Hood of El Dorado", is killed.

1861 – American Civil War: The United States Congress passes the Crittenden–Johnson Resolution, stating that the war is being fought to preserve the Union and not to end slavery.

1866 – The United States Congress passes legislation authorizing the rank of General of the Army. Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant becomes the first to be promoted to this rank.

1868 – Wyoming becomes a United States territory.

1898 – The United States invasion of Puerto Rico begins with U.S. troops led by General Nelson Miles landing at harbor of Guánica, Puerto Rico.

1943 – World War II: Benito Mussolini is forced out of office by his own Italian Grand Council and is replaced by Pietro Badoglio.

1944 – World War II: Operation Spring: One of the bloodiest days for the First Canadian Army during the war: One thousand five hundred casualties, including 500 killed.

1946 – Operation Crossroads: An atomic bomb is detonated underwater in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll.

1946 – At Club 500 in Atlantic City, New Jersey, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis stage their first show as a comedy team.

1952 – The U.S. non-incorporated territory of Puerto Rico adopts a constitution.

1956 – Forty-five miles south of Nantucket Island, the Italian ocean liner SS Andrea Doria collides with the MS Stockholm in heavy fog and sinks the next day, killing 51.

1959 – Lloyd J. Old introduced BCG, a tuberculosis vaccine, into experimental cancer research as a way to stimulate non-specific resistance to tumor growth. BCG was FDA-approved in 1991 and is now widely used as a first line treatment for superficial bladder cancer.

1961 – In a speech John F. Kennedy emphasizes that any attack on Berlin is an attack on NATO.

1965 – Bob Dylan goes electric as he plugs in at the Newport Folk Festival, signaling a major change in folk and rock music.

1969 – Vietnam War: U.S. President Richard Nixon declares the Nixon Doctrine, stating that the United States now expects its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense. This is the start of the "Vietnamization" of the war.

1976 – Viking program: Viking 1 takes the famous Face on Mars photo.

1978 – Puerto Rico police assassinate two nationalists in the Cerro Maravilla murders.

1978 – Louise Brown, the world's first "test tube baby" is born.

1992 – Opening ceremony of 1992 Summer Olympics in Atlanta

2010 – WikiLeaks publishes classified documents about the War in Afghanistan, one of the largest leaks in U.S. military history.

Births

1750 – Henry Knox, American general and politician, 1st United States Secretary of War (d. 1806)

1875 – Jim Corbett, Indian hunter, environmentalist, and author (d. 1955)

1894 – Gavrilo Princip, Bosnian assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (d. 1918)

1915 – Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., American lieutenant and pilot (d. 1944)

1924 – Frank Church, American lawyer and politician (d. 1984)

1941 – Emmett Till, American murder victim (d. 1955)

1954 – Walter Payton, American football player and race car driver (d. 1999)

Deaths

1790 – William Livingston, American soldier and politician, 1st Governor of New Jersey (b. 1723)

1997 – Ben Hogan, American golfer (b. 1912)