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This Day in History: July 23


1632 – Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe, France.

1829 – In the United States, William Austin Burt patents the typographer, a precursor to the typewriter.

1862 – American Civil War: Henry Halleck takes command of the Union Army.

1903 – The Ford Motor Company sells its first car.

1926 – Fox Film buys the patents of the Movietone sound system for recording sound onto film.

1927 – The first station of the Indian Broadcasting Company goes on the air in Bombay.

1940 – The United States' Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles issues a declaration on the U.S. non-recognition policy of the Soviet annexation and incorporation of three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

1942 – The Holocaust: The Treblinka extermination camp is opened.

1942 – World War II: The German offensives Operation Edelweiss and Operation Braunschweig begin.

1962 – Telstar relays the first publicly transmitted, live trans-Atlantic television program, featuring Walter Cronkite.

1967 – 12th Street Riot: In Detroit, one of the worst riots in United States history begins on 12th Street in the predominantly African American inner city. It ultimately kills 43 people, injures 342 and burns about 1,400 buildings.

1968 – Glenville shootout: In Cleveland, Ohio, a violent shootout between a Black Militant organization and the Cleveland Police Department occurs. During the shootout, a riot begins and lasts for five days.

1972 – The United States launches Landsat 1, the first Earth-resources satellite.

1984 – Vanessa Williams becomes the first Miss America to resign when she surrenders her crown after nude photos of her appeared in Penthouse magazine.

1995 – Comet Hale–Bopp is discovered; it becomes visible to the naked eye on Earth nearly a year later.

1997 – Digital Equipment Corporation files antitrust charges against chipmaker Intel.

2015 – NASA announces discovery of Kepler-452b by Kepler.


1885 – Georges V. Matchabelli, Georgian-American businessman, created Prince Matchabelli perfume (d. 1935)

1888 – Raymond Chandler, American author and screenwriter (d. 1959)

1898 – Jacob Marschak, Ukrainian-American economist, journalist, and author (d. 1977)

1936 – Anthony Kennedy, American lawyer and jurist

1940 – Don Imus, American radio host

1960 – Susan Graham, American soprano and educator

1972 – Marlon Wayans, American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter

1973 – Monica Lewinsky, American author and handbag designer

1978 – Lauren Groff, American novelist and short story writer


1793 – Roger Sherman, American lawyer and politician (b. 1721)

1875 – Isaac Singer, American businessman, founded the Singer Corporation (b. 1811)

1885 – Ulysses S. Grant, American general and politician, 18th President of the United States (b. 1822)

1941 – George Lyman Kittredge, American scholar and educator (b. 1860)

1948 – D. W. Griffith, American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1875)

1955 – Cordell Hull, American captain, lawyer, and politician, 47th United States Secretary of State, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1871)

1973 – Eddie Rickenbacker, American pilot and race car driver, founded Rickenbacker Motors (b. 1890)

2002 – Chaim Potok, American novelist and rabbi (b. 1929)

2010 – Daniel Schorr, American journalist and author (b. 1916)

2012 – Sally Ride, American physicist and astronaut (b. 1951)