1494 – The Treaty of Tordesillas is ratified by Spain.
1613 – The first English expedition (from Virginia) against Acadia led by Samuel Argall takes place.
1776 – The Continental Congress adopts a resolution severing ties with the Kingdom of Great Britain although the wording of the formal Declaration of Independence is not approved until July 4.
1777 – Vermont becomes the first American territory to abolish slavery.
1822 – Thirty-five slaves are hanged in South Carolina, including Denmark Vesey, after being accused of organizing a slave rebellion.
1839 – Twenty miles off the coast of Cuba, 53 rebelling African slaves led by Joseph Cinqué take over the slave ship Amistad.
1881 – Charles J. Guiteau shoots and fatally wounds U.S. President James Garfield, who eventually dies from an infection on September 19.
1890 – The U.S. Congress passes the Sherman Antitrust Act.
1921 – World War I: U.S. President Warren G. Harding signs the Knox–Porter Resolution formally ending the war between the United States and Imperial Germany.
1937 – Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan are last heard from over the Pacific Ocean while attempting to make the first equatorial round-the-world flight.
1962 – The first Wal-Mart store opens for business in Rogers, Arkansas.
1964 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 meant to prohibit segregation in public places.
1976 – Fall of the Republic of Vietnam; Communist North Vietnam declares their union to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
2001 – The AbioCor self-contained artificial heart is first implanted.
2002 – Steve Fossett becomes the first person to fly solo around the world nonstop in a balloon.
2013 – The International Astronomical Union names Pluto's fourth and fifth moons, Kerberos and Styx.
1908 – Thurgood Marshall, American lawyer and jurist, 32nd Solicitor General of the United States (d. 1993)
1925 – Medgar Evers, American soldier and activist (d. 1963)
1932 – Dave Thomas, American businessman and philanthropist, founded Wendy's (d. 2002)
1937 – Richard Petty, American race car driver and sportscaster
1961 – Clark Kellogg, American basketball player and sportscaster
1986 – Lindsay Lohan, American actress and singer
1989 – Alex Morgan, American soccer player
1822 – Denmark Vesey, American slave (b. 1767)
1961 – Ernest Hemingway, American novelist, short story writer, and journalist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1899)
1973 – Betty Grable, American actress, singer, and dancer (b. 1916)
1999 – Mario Puzo, American author and screenwriter (b. 1920)
2007 – Beverly Sills, American operatic soprano and television personality (b. 1929)
2012 – Betty Meggers, American archaeologist and academic (b. 1921)
2013 – Douglas Engelbart, American computer scientist, invented the computer mouse (b. 1925)
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