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This Day in History: July 19


1701 – Representatives of the Iroquois Confederacy sign the Nanfan Treaty, ceding a large territory north of the Ohio River to England.

1817 – Unsuccessful in his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Hawaii for the Russian-American Company, Georg Anton Schäffer is forced to admit defeat and leave Kauai.

1848 – Women's rights: A two-day Women's Rights Convention opens in Seneca Falls, New York.

1863 – American Civil War: Morgan's Raid: At Buffington Island in Ohio, Confederate General John Hunt Morgan's raid into the north is mostly thwarted when a large group of his men are captured while trying to escape across the Ohio River.

1919 – Following Peace Day celebrations marking the end of World War I, ex-servicemen riot and burn down Luton Town Hall.

1942 – World War II: Battle of the Atlantic: German Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz orders the last U-boats to withdraw from their United States Atlantic coast positions in response to the effective American convoy system.

1943 – World War II: Rome is heavily bombed by more than 500 Allied aircraft, inflicting thousands of casualties.

1963 – Joe Walker flies a North American X-15 to a record altitude of 106,010 meters (347,800 feet) on X-15 Flight 90. Exceeding an altitude of 100 km, this flight qualifies as a human spaceflight under international convention.

1964 – Vietnam War: At a rally in Saigon, South Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyễn Khánh calls for expanding the war into North Vietnam.

1981 – In a private meeting with U.S. President Ronald Reagan, French Prime Minister François Mitterrand reveals the existence of the Farewell Dossier, a collection of documents showing that the Soviets had been stealing American technological research and development.

1983 – The first three-dimensional reconstruction of a human head in a CT is published.

1989 – United Airlines Flight 232 crashes in Sioux City, Iowa killing 111.


1814 – Samuel Colt, American businessman, founded the Colt's Manufacturing Company (d. 1862)

1860 – Lizzie Borden, American accused murderer (d. 1927)

1865 – Charles Horace Mayo, American surgeon, founded the Mayo Clinic (d. 1939)

1883 – Max Fleischer, Austrian-American animator and producer (d. 1972)

1904 – Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith, American lawyer and farmer (d. 1985)

1965 – Stuart Scott, American sportscaster and actor (d. 2015)


1692 – Sarah Good, American woman accused of witchcraft (b. 1653)

1692 – Susannah Martin, American woman accused of witchcraft (b. 1621)

1850 – Margaret Fuller, American journalist and critic (b. 1810)

1939 – Rose Hartwick Thorpe, American poet and author (b. 1850)

2009 – Frank McCourt, American author and educator (b. 1930)