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This Day in History: January 5

Events

1781 – American Revolutionary War: Richmond, Virginia, is burned by British naval forces led by Benedict Arnold.

1846 – The United States House of Representatives votes to stop sharing the Oregon Territory with the United Kingdom.

1911 – Kappa Alpha Psi, the world's second oldest and largest black fraternity, is founded at Indiana University.

1914 – The Ford Motor Company announces an eight-hour workday and that it would pay a "living wage" of at least US$5 for a day's labor.

1925 – Nellie Tayloe Ross of Wyoming becomes the first female governor in the United States.

1933 – Construction of the Golden Gate Bridge begins in San Francisco Bay.

1944 – The Daily Mail becomes the first transoceanic newspaper.

1949 – United States President Harry S. Truman unveils his Fair Deal program.

1957 – In a speech given to the United States Congress, United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower announces the establishment of what will later be called the Eisenhower Doctrine.

1972 – United States President Richard Nixon orders the development of a Space Shuttle program.

1991 – The United States Embassy to Somalia in Mogadishu is evacuated by helicopter airlift days after violence enveloped Mogadishu during the Somali Civil War

2005 – Eris, the most massive and second-largest known dwarf planet in the Solar System, is discovered by the team of Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David L. Rabinowitz using images originally taken on October 21, 2003, at the Palomar Observatory.

Births

1778 – Zebulon Pike, American general and explorer (d. 1813)

1855 – King Camp Gillette, American businessman, founded the Gillette Company (d. 1932)

1865 – Ban Johnson, American businessman, founded the Western League (d. 1931)

1904 – Jeane Dixon, American astrologer and psychic (d. 1997)

1914 – George Reeves, American actor and director (d. 1959)

1917 – Jane Wyman, American actress (d. 2007)

1923 – Glenn Boyer, American historian and author (d. 2013)

1924 – Sam Phillips, American radio host and producer, founded Sun Records (d. 2003)

1926 – Hosea Williams, American businessman and activist (d. 2000)

1928 – Walter Mondale, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 42nd Vice President of the United States

1931 – Alvin Ailey, American dancer and choreographer, founded the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater (d. 1989)

1936 – Florence King, American journalist and memoirist (d. 2016)

Deaths

1846 – Alfred Thomas Agate, American painter and illustrator (b. 1812)

1860 – John Neumann, Czech-American bishop and saint (b. 1811)

1933 – Calvin Coolidge, American lawyer and politician, 30th President of the United States (b. 1872)

1943 – George Washington Carver, American botanist, educator, and inventor (b. 1864)

1963 – Rogers Hornsby, American baseball player, coach, and manager (b. 1896)