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This Day in History: January 30

Events

1806 – The original Lower Trenton Bridge (also called the Trenton Makes the World Takes Bridge), which spans the Delaware River between Morrisville, Pennsylvania and Trenton, New Jersey, is opened.

1835 – In the first assassination attempt against a President of the United States, Richard Lawrence attempts to shoot president Andrew Jackson, but fails and is subdued by a crowd, including several congressmen as well as Jackson himself.

1847 – Yerba Buena, California is renamed San Francisco.

1862 – The first American ironclad warship, the USS Monitor is launched.

1911 – The destroyer USS Terry makes the first airplane rescue at sea saving the life of Douglas McCurdy ten miles from Havana, Cuba.

1933 – Adolf Hitler is sworn in as Chancellor of Germany.

1942 – World War II: Battle of Ambon. Japanese forces invade the island of Ambon in the Dutch East Indies. Some 300 captured Allied troops have been massacred at Laha airfield. Three-fourths of remaining POWs did not survived at the end of the war, including 250 men who have been shipped to Hainan Island in South China Sea and never returned.

1943 – World War II: Second day of the Battle of Rennell Island. The USS Chicago is sunk and a U.S. destroyer is heavily damaged by Japanese torpedoes.

1944 – World War II: American troops land on Majuro, Marshall Islands.

1945 – World War II: Raid at Cabanatuan: One hundred twenty-six American Rangers and Filipino resistance fighters liberate over 500 Allied prisoners from the Japanese-controlled Cabanatuan POW camp.

1956 – African-American civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr.'s home is bombed in retaliation for the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

1968 – Vietnam War: Tet Offensive launch by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army against South Vietnam, the United States, and their allies.

1971 – Carole King's Tapestry album is released to become the longest charting album by a female solo artist and sell 24 million copies worldwide.

1975 – The Monitor National Marine Sanctuary is established as the first United States National Marine Sanctuary.

1995 – Workers from the National Institutes of Health announce the success of clinical trials testing the first preventive treatment for sickle-cell disease.

Births

1615 – Thomas Rolfe, American son of Pocahontas (d. 1675)

1882 – Franklin D. Roosevelt, American lawyer and politician, 32nd President of the United States (d. 1945)

1919 – Fred Korematsu, American activist (d. 2005)

1925 – Douglas Engelbart, American computer scientist, invented the computer mouse (d. 2013)

1941 – Dick Cheney, American businessman and politician, 46th Vice President of the United States

1953 – Fred Hembeck, American author and illustrator

1957 – Payne Stewart, American golfer (d. 1999)

Deaths

1836 – Betsy Ross, American seamstress, designed the American Flag (b. 1752)

1838 – Osceola, American tribal leader (b. 1804)

1849 – Jonathan Alder, American farmer (b. 1773)

1934 – Frank Nelson Doubleday, American publisher, founded the Doubleday Publishing Company (b. 1862)

1948 – Orville Wright, American pilot and engineer, co-founded the Wright Company (b. 1871)

1980 – Professor Longhair, American singer-songwriter and pianist (b. 1918)

1982 – Lightnin' Hopkins, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1912)

2006 – Coretta Scott King, American author and activist (b. 1927)

2007 – Sidney Sheldon, American author and screenwriter (b. 1917)

2013 – Patty Andrews, American singer (The Andrews Sisters) (b. 1918)