1848 – California Gold Rush: James W. Marshall finds gold at Sutter's Mill near Sacramento.
1916 – In Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad Co., the Supreme Court of the United States declares the federal income tax constitutional.
1933 – The 20th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, changing the beginning and end of terms for all elected federal offices.
1942 – World War II: The Allies bombard Bangkok, leading Thailand, then under Japanese control, to declare war against the United States and United Kingdom.
1943 – World War II: Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill conclude a conference in Casablanca.
1946 – The United Nations General Assembly passes its first resolution to establish the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission.
1961 – Goldsboro B-52 crash: A bomber carrying two H-bombs breaks up in mid-air over North Carolina. The uranium core of one weapon remains lost.
1972 – Japanese Sgt. Shoichi Yokoi is found hiding in a Guam jungle, where he had been since the end of World War II.
1984 – The first Apple Macintosh goes on sale.
1986 – Voyager 2 passes within 81,500 kilometres (50,600 mi) of Uranus.
2003 – The United States Department of Homeland Security officially begins operation.
1862 – Edith Wharton, American author and poet (d. 1937)
1916 – Jack Brickhouse, American sportscaster (d. 1998)
1918 – Oral Roberts, American evangelist (d. 2009)
1925 – Maria Tallchief, American ballerina and actress (d. 2013)
1936 – Doug Kershaw, American singer-songwriter and fiddler
1941 – Neil Diamond, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
1941 – Aaron Neville, American singer
1943 – Sharon Tate, American model and actress (d. 1969)
1949 – John Belushi, American actor and screenwriter (The Blues Brothers) (d. 1982)
1968 – Mary Lou Retton, American gymnast
1955 – Ira Hayes, American marine, member of the Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima (b. 1923)
1971 – Bill W., American activist, co-founded of Alcoholics Anonymous (b. 1895)
1975 – Larry Fine, American actor (b. 1902)
1986 – L. Ron Hubbard, American religious leader and author, founded the Church of Scientology (b. 1911)
1993 – Thurgood Marshall, American lawyer and jurist, 32nd United States Solicitor General (b. 1908)
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