1585 – John Davis enters Cumberland Sound in search of the Northwest Passage.
1794 – Joseph Whidbey leads an expedition to search for the Northwest Passage near Juneau, Alaska.
1844 – The Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, headed by Brigham Young, is reaffirmed as the leading body of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).
1863 – American Civil War: Following his defeat in the Battle of Gettysburg, General Robert E. Lee sends a letter of resignation to Confederate President Jefferson Davis (which is refused upon receipt).
1876 – Thomas Edison receives a patent for his mimeograph.
1885 – More than 1.5 million people attend the funeral of Ulysses S. Grant in New York City.
1908 – Wilbur Wright makes his first flight at a racecourse at Le Mans, France. It is the Wright Brothers' first public flight.
1918 – World War I: The Battle of Amiens begins a string of almost continuous victories with a push through the German front lines (Hundred Days Offensive).
1945 – The London Charter is signed by France, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States, establishing the laws and procedures for the Nuremberg trials.
1946 – First flight of the Convair B-36, the world's first mass-produced nuclear weapon delivery vehicle, the heaviest mass-produced piston-engined aircraft, with the longest wingspan of any military aircraft, and the first bomber with intercontinental range.
1974 – President Richard Nixon, in a nationwide television address, announces his resignation from the office of the President of the United States effective noon the next day.
1989 – Space Shuttle program: STS-28 Mission: Space Shuttle Columbia takes off on a secret five-day military mission.
1990 – Iraq occupies Kuwait and the state is annexed to Iraq. This would lead to the Gulf War shortly afterward.
2000 – Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley is raised to the surface after 136 years on the ocean floor and 30 years after its discovery by undersea explorer E. Lee Spence.
2007 – An EF2 tornado touches down in Kings County and Richmond County, New York, the most powerful tornado in New York to date and the first in Brooklyn since 1889.
2008 – Official ceremony of 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Bird's Nest.
2015 – Eight people are killed in a shooting in Harris County, Texas.
1518 – Conrad Lycosthenes, French-German scholar and author (d. 1561)
1605 – Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, English lawyer and politician, Governor of Newfoundland (d. 1675)
1879 – Bob Smith, American physician and surgeon, co-founded Alcoholics Anonymous (d. 1950)
1884 – Sara Teasdale, American poet and educator (d. 1933)
1907 – Benny Carter, American saxophonist, trumpet player, and composer (d. 2003)
1921 – Esther Williams, American swimmer and actress (d. 2013)
1922 – Gertrude Himmelfarb, American historian, author, and academic
1930 – Joan Mondale, American wife of Walter Mondale, 32nd Second Lady of the United States (d. 2014)
1937 – Dustin Hoffman, American actor
1941 – George Tiller, American physician (d. 2009)
1950 – Willie Hall, American drummer and producer (The Blues Brothers, The Bar-Kays, and Booker T. & the M.G.'s)
1958 – Deborah Norville, American journalist
1967 – Eric Angle, American wrestler
1965 – Shirley Jackson, American novelist and short story writer (b. 1916)
1991 – James Irwin, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1930)
2005 – John H. Johnson, American publisher, founded the Johnson Publishing Company (b. 1918)
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