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This Day in U.S. History: April 8

Events

1665 – English colonial patents are granted for the establishment of the Monmouth Tract, for what would eventually become Monmouth County in northeastern New Jersey.

1808 – The Roman Catholic Diocese of Baltimore is promoted to an archdiocese, with the founding of the dioceses of New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and Bardstown (now Louisville) by Pope Pius VII.

1832 – Black Hawk War: Around three-hundred United States 6th Infantry troops leave St. Louis, Missouri to fight the Sauk Native Americans.

1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Mansfield: Union forces are thwarted by the Confederate army at Mansfield, Louisiana.

1895 – In Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. the Supreme Court of the United States declares unapportioned income tax to be unconstitutional.

1904 – Longacre Square in Midtown Manhattan is renamed Times Square after The New York Times.

1908 – Harvard University votes to establish the Harvard Business School.

1913 – The 17th Amendment to the United States Constitution, requiring direct election of Senators, becomes law.

1916 – In Corona, California, race car driver Bob Burman crashes, killing three (including himself), and badly injuring five spectators.

1918 – World War I: Actors Douglas Fairbanks and Charlie Chaplin sell war bonds on the streets of New York City's financial district.

1935 – The Works Progress Administration is formed when the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 becomes law.

1942 – World War II: Siege of Leningrad: Soviet forces open a much-needed railway link to Leningrad.

1942 – World War II: The Japanese take Bataan in the Philippines.

1943 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in an attempt to check inflation, freezes wages and prices, prohibits workers from changing jobs unless the war effort would be aided thereby, and bars rate increases by common carriers and public utilities.

1945 – World War II: After an air raid accidentally destroys a train carrying about 4,000 Nazi concentration camp internees in Prussian Hanover, the survivors are massacred by Nazis.

1952 – U.S. President Harry Truman calls for the seizure of all domestic steel mills to prevent a nationwide strike.

1959 – A team of computer manufacturers, users, and university people led by Grace Hopper meets to discuss the creation of a new programming language that would be called COBOL.

1959 – The Organization of American States drafts an agreement to create the Inter-American Development Bank.

1964 – The Gemini 1 test flight is conducted.

1974 – At Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium, Hank Aaron hits his 715th career home run to surpass Babe Ruth's 39-year-old record.

1975 – Frank Robinson manages the Cleveland Indians in his first game as major league baseball's first African American manager.

1987 – Los Angeles Dodgers executive Al Campanis resigns amid controversy over racially charged remarks he had made while on Nightline.

1992 – Retired tennis great Arthur Ashe announces that he has AIDS, acquired from blood transfusions during one of his two heart surgeries.

Births

1726 – Lewis Morris, American judge and politician (d. 1798)

1871 – Clarence Hudson White, American photographer and educator (d. 1925)

1933 – James Lockhart, American scholar of colonial Latin America, especially Nahua peoples (d. 2014)

Deaths

1861 – Elisha Otis, American businessman, founded the Otis Elevator Company (b. 1811)

1981 – Omar Bradley, American general (b. 1893)

2013 – Annette Funicello, American actress and singer (b. 1942)