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This Day in U.S. History: April 7

Events

1776 – Captain John Barry and the USS Lexington captures the Edward.

1788 – American pioneers to the Northwest Territory establish Marietta, Ohio as the first permanent American settlement in the Northwest Territory.

1798 – The Mississippi Territory is organized from disputed territory claimed by both the United States and Spain. It is expanded in 1804 and again in 1812.

1805 – Lewis and Clark Expedition: The Corps of Discovery breaks camp among the Mandan tribe and resumes its journey West along the Missouri River.

1829 – Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, commences translation of the Book of Mormon, with Oliver Cowdery as his scribe.

1862 – American Civil War: Battle of Shiloh ends: The Union Army under General Ulysses S. Grant defeats the Confederates near Shiloh, Tennessee.

1922 – Teapot Dome scandal: United States Secretary of the Interior leases petroleum reserves in Wyoming.

1927 – First long-distance public television broadcast (from Washington, D.C., to New York City, displaying the image of Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover).

1933 – Prohibition in the United States is repealed for beer of no more than 3.2% alcohol by weight, eight months before the ratification of the XXI amendment.

1940 – Booker T. Washington becomes the first African American to be depicted on a United States postage stamp.

1943 – The Holocaust: In Terebovlia, Ukraine, Germans order 1,100 Jews to undress to their underwear and march through the city of Terebovlia to the nearby village of Plebanivka where they are shot dead and buried in ditches.

1945 – World War II: The Japanese battleship Yamato, the largest battleship ever constructed, is sunk by American planes 200 miles north of Okinawa while en route to a suicide mission in Operation Ten-Go.

1949 – The Rodgers and Hammerstein musical South Pacific opened on Broadway; it would run for 1,925 performances and win ten Tony Awards.

1954 – United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower gives his "domino theory" speech during a news conference.

1967 – Film critic Roger Ebert published his very first film review in the Chicago Sun-Times.

1969 – The Internet's symbolic birth date: Publication of RFC 1.

1971 – President Richard Nixon announces his decision to increase the rate of American troop withdrawals from Vietnam.

1978 – Development of the neutron bomb is canceled by President Jimmy Carter.

1980 – The United States severs relations with Iran.

1983 – During STS-6, astronauts Story Musgrave and Don Peterson perform the first Space Shuttle spacewalk.

1990 – Iran–Contra affair: John Poindexter is found guilty of five charges for his part in the scandal (the conviction is later reversed on appeal).

1999 – The World Trade Organization rules in favor of the United States in its long-running trade dispute with the European Union over bananas.

2001 – Mars Odyssey is launched.

2003 – U.S. troops capture Baghdad; Saddam Hussein's regime falls two days later.

Births

1860 – Will Keith Kellogg, American businessman, founded the Kellogg Company (d. 1951)

1897 – Walter Winchell, American journalist and radio host (d. 1972)

1915 – Billie Holiday, American singer-songwriter and actress (d. 1959)

1920 – Ravi Shankar, Indian-American sitar player and composer (d. 2012)

1931 – Daniel Ellsberg, American theorist and author

Deaths

1663 – Francis Cooke, English-American settler (b. 1583)

1891 – P. T. Barnum, American businessman and politician, co-founded The Barnum & Bailey Circus (b. 1810)

1947 – Henry Ford, American engineer and businessman, founded the Ford Motor Company (b. 1863)

2012 – Mike Wallace, American journalist, actor, and game show host (b. 1918)

2015 – Stan Freberg, American puppeteer, voice actor, and singer (b. 1926)