1781 – American Revolutionary War: British and French ships clash in the Battle of Fort Royal off the coast of Martinique.
1861 – American Civil War: Maryland's House of Delegates votes not to secede from the Union.
1862 – American Civil War: Capture of New Orleans New Orleans falls to Union forces under Admiral David Farragut.
1864 – Theta Xi fraternity is founded at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the only fraternity to be founded during the American Civil War.
1945 – World War II: The German army in Italy unconditionally surrenders to the Allies.
1945 – World War II: Führerbunker: Adolf Hitler marries his longtime partner Eva Braun in a Berlin bunker and designates Admiral Karl Dönitz as his successor. Both Hitler and Braun commit suicide the following day.
1945 – The Dachau concentration camp is liberated by United States troops.
1946 – The International Military Tribunal for the Far East convenes and indicts former Prime Minister of Japan Hideki Tojo and 28 former Japanese leaders for war crimes.
1953 – The first U.S. experimental 3D television broadcast showed an episode of Space Patrol on Los Angeles ABC affiliate KECA-TV.
1967 – After refusing induction into the United States Army the day before (citing religious reasons), Muhammad Ali is stripped of his boxing title.
1968 – The controversial musical Hair, a product of the hippie counter-culture and sexual revolution of the 1960s, opens at the Biltmore Theatre on Broadway, with its songs becoming anthems of the anti-Vietnam War movement.
1970 – Vietnam War: United States and South Vietnamese forces invade Cambodia to hunt Viet Cong.
1974 – Watergate scandal: United States President Richard Nixon announces the release of edited transcripts of White House tape recordings relating to the scandal.
1975 – Vietnam War: Operation Frequent Wind: The U.S. begins to evacuate U.S. citizens from Saigon before an expected North Vietnamese takeover. U.S. involvement in the war comes to an end.
1975 – Vietnam War: The North Vietnamese Army completes its capture of all parts of South Vietnamese-held Trường Sa Islands.
1986 – A fire at the Central library of the City of Los Angeles Public Library damages or destroys 400,000 books and other items.
1992 – Los Angeles riots: Riots in Los Angeles, following the acquittal of police officers charged with excessive force in the beating of Rodney King. Over the next three days 53 people are killed and hundreds of buildings are destroyed.
1994 – Commodore International declares bankruptcy.
2004 – Dick Cheney and George W. Bush testify before the 9/11 Commission in a closed, unrecorded hearing in the Oval Office.
2004 – Oldsmobile builds its final car ending 107 years of production.
2015 – A baseball game between the Baltimore Orioles and the Chicago White Sox sets the all-time low attendance mark for Major League Baseball. Zero fans were in attendance for the game, as the stadium was officially closed to the public due to the 2015 Baltimore protests.
1745 – Oliver Ellsworth, American lawyer and politician, 3rd Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1807)
1863 – William Randolph Hearst, American publisher and politician, founded the Hearst Corporation (d. 1951)
1899 – Duke Ellington, American pianist, composer, and bandleader (d. 1974)
1901 – Hirohito, Japanese emperor (d. 1989)
1938 – Bernard Madoff, American businessman and financier
1947 – Jim Ryun, American runner and politician
1954 – Jerry Seinfeld, American comedian, actor, and producer
1967 – Master P, American rapper, producer, and actor
1970 – Andre Agassi, American tennis player
1980 – Alfred Hitchcock, English-American director and producer (b. 1899)
1997 – Mike Royko, American journalist and author (b. 1932)
2012 – Amarillo Slim, American poker player (b. 1928)
2015 – Jean Nidetch, American businesswoman, co-founded Weight Watchers (b. 1923)
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