1788 – Maryland becomes the seventh state to ratify the United States Constitution.
1869 – Chinese and Irish laborers for the Central Pacific Railroad working on the First Transcontinental Railroad lay ten miles of track in one day, a feat which has never been matched.
1881 – Billy the Kid escapes from the Lincoln County jail in Mesilla, New Mexico.
1930 – The Independence Producers hosted the first night game in the history of Organized Baseball in Independence, Kansas.
1944 – World War II: Nine German E-boats attacked US and UK units during Exercise Tiger, the rehearsal for the Normandy landings, killing 946.
1945 – Benito Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci are executed by a firing squad consisting of members of the Italian resistance movement.
1948 – Igor Stravinsky conducted the premier of his American ballet, Orpheus, in New York City at New York City Center.
1952 – Dwight D. Eisenhower resigns as Supreme Allied Commander of NATO.
1952 – Occupied Japan by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers: The United States occupation of Japan ends as the Treaty of San Francisco, ratified September 8, 1951, comes into force.
1965 – United States occupation of the Dominican Republic: American troops land in the Dominican Republic to "forestall establishment of a Communist dictatorship" and to evacuate U.S. Army troops.
1967 – Vietnam War: Boxer Muhammad Ali refuses his induction into the United States Army and is subsequently stripped of his championship and license.
1970 – Vietnam War: U.S. President Richard Nixon formally authorizes American combat troops to fight communist sanctuaries in Cambodia.
1975 – General Cao Văn Viên, chief of the South Vietnamese military, departs for the US as the North Vietnamese Army closed in on victory.
1986 – The United States Navy aircraft carrier USS Enterprise becomes the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier to transit the Suez Canal, navigating from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea to relieve the USS Coral Sea.
1988 – Near Maui, Hawaii, flight attendant Clarabelle "C.B." Lansing is blown out of Aloha Airlines Flight 243, a Boeing 737, and falls to her death when part of the plane's fuselage rips open in mid-flight.
1994 – Former Central Intelligence Agency counterintelligence officer and analyst Aldrich Ames pleads guilty to giving U.S. secrets to the Soviet Union and later Russia.
1996 – Whitewater controversy: President Bill Clinton gives a 4½ hour videotaped testimony for the defense.
1758 – James Monroe, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 5th President of the United States (d. 1831)
1865 – Charles W. Woodworth, American entomologist and academic (d. 1940)
1878 – Lionel Barrymore, American actor and director (d. 1954)
1926 – Harper Lee, American novelist (d. 2016)
1928 – Eugene Merle Shoemaker, American geologist and astronomer (d. 1997)
1941 – Ann-Margret, Swedish-American actress, singer, and dancer
1949 – Indian Larry, American motorcycle rider and engineer (d. 2004)
1950 – Jay Leno, American comedian, talk show host, and producer
1960 – Elena Kagan, American lawyer and jurist, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
1945 – Benito Mussolini, Italian journalist and politician, 27th Prime Minister of Italy (b. 1883)
1945 – Clara Petacci, Italian mistress of Benito Mussolini (b. 1912)
2002 – Lou Thesz, American wrestler and trainer (b. 1916)
2007 – Tommy Newsom, American saxophonist and bandleader (b. 1929)
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