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This Day in U.S. History: April 23

Events

1635 – The first public school in the United States, Boston Latin School, is founded in Boston.

1910 – American President Theodore Roosevelt makes his "The Man in the Arena" speech.

1914 – First baseball game at Wrigley Field, then known as Weeghman Park in Chicago.

1945 – World War II: Adolf Hitler's designated successor Hermann Göring sends him a telegram asking permission to take leadership of the Third Reich, which causes Hitler to replace him with Joseph Goebbels and Karl Dönitz.

1951 – American journalist William N. Oatis is arrested for espionage by the Communist government of Czechoslovakia.

1968 – Vietnam War: Student protesters at Columbia University in New York City take over administration buildings and shut down the university.

1985 – Coca-Cola changes its formula and releases New Coke. The response is overwhelmingly negative, and the original formula is back on the market in less than three months.

2005 – First YouTube video uploaded, titled "Me at the zoo".

Births

1621 – William Penn, English admiral and politician (d. 1670)

1791 – James Buchanan, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 15th President of the United States (d. 1868)

1813 – Stephen A. Douglas, American educator and politician (d. 1861)

1928 – Shirley Temple, American actress, singer, dancer, and diplomat (d. 2014)

1932 – Halston, American fashion designer (d. 1990)

1932 – Jim Fixx, American runner and author (d. 1984)

1936 – Roy Orbison, American singer-songwriter  (d. 1988)

1954 – Michael Moore, American director, producer, and activist

1960 – Valerie Bertinelli, American actress

1968 – Timothy McVeigh, American terrorist, Oklahoma City bombing co-perpetrator (d. 2001)

1977 – John Cena, American wrestler

Deaths

1907 – Alferd Packer, American prospector (b. 1842)

1951 – Charles G. Dawes, American banker and politician, 30th Vice President of the United States, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1865)

1965 – George Adamski, Polish-American ufologist and author (b. 1891)

1983 – Buster Crabbe, American swimmer and actor (b. 1908)

1986 – Otto Preminger, Ukrainian-American actor, director, and producer (b. 1906)

1993 – Cesar Chavez, American activist, co-founded the United Farm Workers (b. 1927)

1995 – Howard Cosell, American lawyer and journalist (b. 1918)

1998 – James Earl Ray, American assassin of Martin Luther King, Jr. (b. 1928)